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Introduction to Generative Grammar

Seminar 3:

S-structure. D-structure.
Movement.
Date: December 6, 2013
Instructor: Adriana Todea
Office hours: Friday 2-3 p.m.
Alpha Centre room
D-structure
S-structure
Phonetic Form Logical Form
Move
Eliminates phonological redundancies
Preserves meaning by creating
logical chains
Projection Principle X-bar model
Theta-criterion
Using the X-bar model, draw the tree diagram of the following sentence:
1. What did the president meet the strikers leaders yesterday for?
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
D-structure
CP
C
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Purpose
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
Subject argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
C
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
D-structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
Subject argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
The interrogative feature triggers :
--the I C head-to-head movement;
Purpose
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
D-structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
Subject argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
The interrogative feature triggers :
--the I C head-to-head movement;
-- wh-movement
[+interr]
Purpose
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
D-structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
Subject argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
The interrogative feature triggers :
--the I C head-to-head movement;
-- wh-movement
[+interr]
Purpose
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
Movement
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
Spec-VP to spec-IP (Subject movement)
The interrogative feature triggers :
-- I C head-to-head movement;
-- wh-movement to spec-CP
NP
the
president
did
NP
what
Purpose
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
NP
the
president
did
NP
what
Interaction with PF: deletion of the
pronunciation of redundant phrases
Purpose
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
t
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
NP
the
president
did
NP
what
Interaction with PF: deletion of the
pronunciation of redundant phrases
Purpose
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
NP
what
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
t
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
did
NP
what
Interaction with PF: deletion of the
pronunciation of redundant phrases
t
Purpose
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
t
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
did
NP
what
Interaction with PF: deletion of the
pronunciation of redundant phrases
t
t
Purpose
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
P
P
for
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
t
the strikers leaders
NP
PP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
did
NP
what
Interaction with LF:

t
t
chain (what
k
, t
k
)
chain (NP
i
the president, t
i
)
chain (did
j
, t
j
)
t
j

did
j

NP
i

the
president
t
i

NP
k

what
t
k

Purpose
[+interr]
Using the X-bar model, draw the tree diagram of the following sentence:
2. For what did the president meet the strikers leaders yesterday?
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
D-structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
P
NP
what
P
for
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
Subject argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
The interrogative feature triggers :
--the I C head-to-head movement;
-- wh-movement
[+interr]
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
Movement
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
did
the strikers leaders
NP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
Spec-VP to spec-IP (Subject movement)
The interrogative feature triggers :
-- I C head-to-head movement;
-- wh-movement to spec-CP
NP
the
president
did
PP
for what
P
NP
what
P
for
PP
[+interr]
PP
for what
meet
V
NP
the
president
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
V
V
yesterday
AdvP
Agent
Temporal
Patient
I
t
the strikers leaders
NP
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
did
Interaction with LF:

t
t
chain (PP
k
, t
k
)
chain (NP
i
the president, t
i
)
chain (did
j
, t
j
)
t
j

did
j

NP
i

the
president
t
i

PP
k

for what
t
k

[+interr]
Using the X-bar model, draw the tree diagram of the following sentence:
3. Maria was given the book yesterday by John.
John gave the book to Maria yesterday.
*Maria was given the book to yesterday.
John gave Maria the book yesterday.
Maria was given the book yesterday.
VP
I
IP
D-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Agent
Temporal
Bene
I
was
Maria
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
The first NP argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
given
V
V
V
V
V
the book
NP
[+Passive participle]
Theme
VP
I
IP
D-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Temporal
Bene
I
was
Maria
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
The first NP argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
given
V
V
V
V
V
the book
NP
[+Passive participle]
Theme
Agent
VP
I
IP
Movement
yesterday
AdvP
Temporal
Bene
I
was
Maria
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
The first NP argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
given
V
V
V
V
V
the book
NP
[+Passive participle]
Theme
Maria
NP
Agent
VP
I
IP
S-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Agent
Temporal
Bene
I
was
Maria
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
given
V
V
V
V
V
the book
NP
[+Passive participle]
Theme
Interaction with PF: deletion of the
pronunciation of redundant phrases
t
Agent
VP
I
IP
S-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Agent
Temporal
Bene
I
was
Maria
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
given
V
V
V
V
V
the book
NP
[+Passive participle]
Theme
t
Interaction with LF:

chain (NP
i
Maria, t
i
)
Maria
NP
i

t
i

Agent
Using the X-bar model, draw the tree diagram of the following sentence:
4. The book was given to Maria yesterday by John.
John gave the book to Maria yesterday.
The book was given to Maria yesterday.
John gave Maria the book yesterday.
*The book was given Maria yesterday.
VP
I
IP
D-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Temporal
Theme
I
was
the book
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
The first NP argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
given
V
V
V
V
V
to Maria
PP
[+Passive participle]
Bene
Agent
VP
I
IP
D-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Temporal
Theme
I
was
the book
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
What has to move:
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
The first NP argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
given
V
V
V
V
V
to Maria
PP
[+Passive participle]
Bene
Agent
VP
I
IP
Movement
yesterday
AdvP
Temporal
Theme
I
was
the book
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
The first NP argument of the verb to spec-IP (+EPP)
given
V
V
V
V
V
to Maria
NP
[+Passive participle]
Bene
the book
NP
Agent
VP
I
IP
S-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Temporal
Theme
I
was
the book
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
given
V
V
V
V
V
to Maria
PP
[+Passive participle]
Bene
Interaction with PF: deletion of the
pronunciation of redundant phrases
t
Agent
VP
I
IP
S-structure
yesterday
AdvP
Temporal
Theme
I
was
the book
NP
P
NP
John
P
by
PP
[+Past tense
+Agr.3rd sg
+EPP]
given
V
V
V
V
V
to Maria
PP
[+Passive participle]
Bene
t
Interaction with LF:

chain (NP
i
the book, t
i
)
the book
NP
i

t
i

Agent
Given the D-structure, draw the S-structure diagram of the following
sentence:
5. What did that girl (that) George met yesterday do?
Agent
C
C
CP
do
V
NP
VP
I
IP
D-structure
Agent
Temporal
Patient
did
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
N
N
D
that
girl
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
met
NP
George
AdvP
yesterday
V
NP
that girl
V
(that)
V
NP
what
Theme
--Subject movement
--interrogative head-to-head movement
--wh-movement

I
Relative clause= the head noun is co-referential
with an argument in its clausal post-modifier
[+interr]
met
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
Movement
did
V
NP
what
Theme
I
NP
that girl
(that) George
met yesterday
Agent
[+interr]
Temporal
D
that
AdvP
that girl
NP
Agent
Patient
N
N
girl
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
met
NP
George
yesterday
V
NP V
(that)
met
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
Movement
did
V
NP
what
Theme
I
did
NP
what
NP
that girl
(that) George
met yesterday
Agent
Temporal
D
that
AdvP
that girl
NP
Agent
Patient
N
N
girl
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
met
NP
George
yesterday
V
NP V
(that)
NP
George
met
[+interr]
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
did
V
Theme
I
did
NP
that girl
(that) George
met yesterday
Agent
Temporal
D
that
AdvP
that girl
NP
Agent
Patient
N
N
girl
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
met
NP
George
yesterday
V
NP V
(that)
NP
George
met
NP
i

what
t
i

Interaction with PF and LF
[+interr]
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
V
Theme
I
NP
that girl
(that) George
met yesterday
Agent
Temporal
D
that
AdvP
that girl
NP
Agent
Patient
N
N
girl
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
met
NP
George
yesterday
V
NP V
(that)
NP
George
met
NP
i

what
t
i

t
j

did
j

Interaction with PF and LF
[+interr]
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
V
Theme
I
NP
that girl
(that) George
met yesterday
Agent
Temporal
D
that
AdvP
NP
Agent
Patient
N
N
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
met
NP
George
yesterday
V
V
(that)
NP
George
met
NP
i

what
t
i

t
j

did
j

girl
p

t
p

Interaction with PF and LF
[+interr]
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
V
Theme
I
NP
that girl
(that) George
met yesterday
Agent
Temporal
D
that
AdvP
NP
Agent
Patient
N
N
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
met
yesterday
V
V
(that)
met
NP
i

what
t
i

t
j

did
j

girl
p

t
p

t
m

NP
m

George
Interaction with PF and LF
[+interr]
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
Interaction with PF and LF
V
Theme
I
NP
that girl
(that) George
met yesterday
Agent
Temporal
D
that
AdvP
NP
Agent
Patient
N
N
C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
yesterday
V
V
(that)
NP
i

what
t
i

t
j

did
j

girl
p

t
p

t
m

NP
m

George
t
n

met
n

[+interr]
C
C
CP
do
V
VP
I
IP
S-structure
V
Theme
I
t
j

did
j

Temporal
D
that
AdvP
Agent
NP
k

Agent
Patient
N
N
girl
p

C
C
CP
IP
I
[+Past tense
+Abstract agr.
+EPP]
I
VP
V
t
n

t
m

yesterday
V
V
(that)
NP
m

George
met
n

NP
i

what
t
i

t
k

t
p

[+interr]
Fill up the S-structure diagrams of the following sentences:
6. Whose car did George drive?
7. Why did George ask when he should leave?
8. Where were the Saxons defeated by the Normans?
6. Whose car did George drive?
drive
V
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
Agent
Theme
I
[+Past tense
+ Agr. 3rd sg
+EPP]
t
j

did
j

NP
i

George
t
i

t
k

NP
k

N
N
car
NP
whose
[+interr]
Purpose/ Reason
Temporal
Agent
Agent
Theme
7. Why did George ask when he should leave?
CP
C
C IP
I
I
VP
V
V
CP
C
C IP
I
I VP
V
V
leave
t
m

AdvP
m

when
should
NP
n

he
t
n

ask
V
NP
k

George
t
k

t
i

AdvP
i

why
t
j

did
j

[+interr]
[+subcl]
defeated
V
VP
I
IP
S-Structure
C
C
CP
V
V
P
P
by
Agent
Location
Patient
I
PP
[+Past tense
+ Agr. 3rd pl
+EPP]
t
j

were
j

NP
i

the
Saxons
t
i

AdvP
k

where
t
k

[+passive participle]
V
the Normans
NP
8. Where were the Saxons defeated by the Normans?
[+interr]
Using the X-bar model, draw the tree diagram of the following sentences:
(S-structure)
Further practice
9. Who(m) did George see at the station when Peter arrived?

10. The bridge was skied under by the contestants.

11. Which dress does Ann like best?

12. George lost the book with blue covers.
12. George lost the book whose covers are blue.