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strength and use of aggregate having low abrasion.

2)SULPHATE RESISTING CEMENT is considered INEFFECTIVE in an

environment where both Sulphates and Chlorides are present.

Sulphate attack. But in environment with both sulphates and chlorides,

the C3A in the cement reacts preferentially with the Sulphates and

enough C3A is left to bind the chlorides.

3)The basic mechanical properties for “Structural design” for steel reinforcement

are:

a) The characteristic yield strength

b) Ultimate tensile strength

c) Elongation

4) Why Fe500 and above grade of steel reinforcing bars are not allowed

for members subject to SEISMIC forces?

Reason: The bars having yield strength higher than 500N/mm2 tend to

possess lower percentage elongation which is not acceptable for Seismic

prone structures since plastic hinge formation is not possible.

For steel bars to loose one mm diameter due to corrosion, it takes about

12.5 years. But due to practical reasons the number of years reduces

due to hostile corrosive environment.

For 6mm dia. To corrode completely it takes about 75 years.

6)Cracking levels depend on,

d)Tensile strength of concrete.

e)The cover thickness.

f)The diameter of rebar &

g)Rate of corrosion.

8)The relation between the cube strength & cylinder strength is

f’c =0.8 fck where f’c= cylinder strength, fck= cube strength.

9)The static Modulus Ec(Mpa) in terms of characteristic cube strength fck(Mpa) ,

Ec=5000√fck N/mm2,(IS code),

Ec=0.0427√β3f’c (ACI code) =4500√fck where β =2400Kg/m3.

10) Poisson’s ratio:A value of about 0.2 is usually considered for design.

11) Direct tensile strength of concrete is equal to about 7 to 15% of the compressive strength.

12) For normal density concrete the splitting strength is about 2/3 of the modulus of rupture.

13) Modulus of rupture:

fcr=0.7 √fck --IS CODE fck in N/mm2.

Fcr=0.623√f’c—ACI Code .

Use of lower value of fcr will result in more conservative (lower) estimate of cracking moment.

14) Shear strength: The strength of concrete in PURE SHEAR has been

reported to be in the range of 10 to 20% of its compressive strength.

15) Temperature and shrinkage causes tensile forces in concrete.

16) CREEP: When concrete is subject to sustained compressive loading , its

deformation keeps increasing with time and this time dependent component-

(excluding strains introduced by shrinkage and temperature variations) of the

total strain is termed as CREEP.

17) Factors influencing creep: Creep increases when,

a) cement content is high,

b) w/c ratio is high,

c) aggregate content is low,

d) air entertainment is high,

e) relative humidity is low,

f) temperature (causing moisture loss) is high,

g) size / thickness of the member is small,

h) loading occurs at an early age &

i) loading is sustained over a long period.

18)Effect of creep:

Determental results in RC structures due to creep:

increased deflection of beams and slabs.

Increased deflection of slender columns( possibly leading to buckling)

Gradual transfer of load from concrete to reinforcing steel in

compression members.

Loss of prestress in prestressed concrete.

0.2% of cross sectional area at the compression face.

ө = 2.2 for age of loading at 7 days,

= 1.6 –do- at 28 days,

= 1.1 –do- at one year.

21)Effective modulus of elasticity for concrete, Ece=Ec/1+ ө.

22) Alternating drying and wet conditions will cause alternating volume

changes in concrete. So, curing by this method is not recommended.

Continuous curing is mandatory to get the best results.

23) Symmeterical arrangements of reinforcement will aid to avoid the

differential restraint.

24)IS code recommends the co-efficient of thermal expansion of concrete

from 6x10^-6 mm/mm per degree c. to 12x10^-6 mm/mm per degree c.

25)The co-efficient of thermal expansion of steel is 12x10^-6mm/mm per

degree c

26)The water content normally ranges from 180 to 200 lit per m3in concrete

mix.

27)The ratio of Fine aggregate to Coarse aggregate is 1:2 or 0.35:65.

28)Es modulus of elasticity of steel

Es=2x10^5Mpa(n/mm^2) (200kn/mm^2)

29)Hanger bars of nominal diameter used for the purpose of holding

stirrups DO NOT normally qualify as Compression reinforcement –

unless the area of such bars is greater than 0.2% of sectional area

of the member.

30)Shall we use Fe500 grade of steel for stirrups to resist the shear

forces?

No. Under clause c1.39.4, the IS code IS 456 limits the value of Fe

415Mpa as high strength reinforcement may be rendered brittle at

sharp bends of the WEB reinforcement, also a shear compression

failure could procede the yielding of the high strength steel.

31)The shear capacity of concrete shall not be considered effective for

members subject to SEISMIC forces and hence whole value shall be

resisted by closed vertical stirrups.

32)Shear Modulus G =0.4Ec

33)Torsional reinforcement is provided in the form of closed stirrups and

Longitudinal bars which are distributed around the cross section, close

to the periphery.

34)To achieve economy and importantly to get the ductility requirements

the members always should be designed as “ UNDER REINFORCED “

section by limiting the Pt(the ration of reinforcement steel area ) to 75%

of Pt limit(Balalnced section).

35)IS456-2000 allows only 30 %( max) moment redistribution in General

for beams and slabs( NOT FOR COLUMNS)-10%(max) for structures

subject to vertical gravity loads only.

36)Reduction of moments on account of moment redistribution is generally

NOT APPLIED TO COLUMNS.

37)To find the weight of the steel bars per meter, mutiply by

0.006162times dia^2.(Kg/m)

Example : to find weight of 25 mm bar/m=0.006162*25^2=3.85Kg/m

38)Is it good to apply epoxies on WET or DAMP surfaces? No. Because

the epoxies do not bond on wet or damp surfaces.

39)For cantilever beams: Where the main bars shall be placed? Top or bottom. If

bottom, the member will collapse immediately after removing the centering. It

should be placed on top as the tension is on the top surface.

40)For cantilever beams: How will be positioned the hooks of the stirrups in a

cantilever beam? Is it at the top as usually done for beam or at the bottom? It

should be at bottom only since the hooks if placed at the top will open up when it

bends while it is tension state.

41) In frame analysis, centre line dimensions of beams and columns are

generally used to define the geometry of frame “line

diagram”. The BM obtained is on Centre line which has to be reduced by

Vb/3 . ie Ms-Vb/3 where Ms is the moment at centre line and V is the shear at

the centre line and b is the width of the column or beam. This enables to get lesser

steel area which aids in avoiding congestion of reinforcement at the beam

column joint to some extent. (vide page 309 –RC DESIGN By S.Unnikrishna

Pillai and Devadas Menon.)

42) The shear also should be taken at a distance

of d the effective depth from the face of the

column or beam .

43) For all buildings which are more than 3 storeys in height, the min. grade of

concrete shall be M20. (clause 5.2 of IS 13920:1993)

44) ….It may be clarified that REDISTRIBUTION of MOMENTS permitted in IS

456:2000 will be used only for VERTICAL LOAD MOMENTS AND NOT

FOR LATERAL LOAD MOMENTS. (clause 6.2.4 of IS 13920:1993)

45) The contribution of bent up bars & inclined hoops to shear resistance of the

section shall not be considered while designing against the SEISMIC

FORCES. (clause 6.3.4 of IS 13920:1993)

46) The mix proportion 1:2:4 or 1:1.5:3 is by weight or by volume?

47) 1000 litre of water weighs to 1000Kg. Is it right?

48) One litre is equal 1cu.m. Is it correct?

49) A first class brick should not absorb water more than ….of its own dry

weight after 24 hours immersion in cold water.

a)10% b)15% c) 20% d) 25%.

50) A first class brick should have a minimum crushing strength of

70Kg/cm^2

105Kg/cm^2

125 kg/cm^2

140 Kg/cm^2.

51) Excess of Alumina and Silica in the clay:

makes the brick brittle and weak,

makes the brick crack and wrap on drying.

Changes colour of the brick from red to yellow,

Improves the impermeability and durability of the brick

Leaves high powder deposit on the brick.

52) The shrinkage of ordinary concrete is 0.3 to 0.6 mm/m.

53) The permissible limit for solids in water used for concrete mix as per

IS456:2000 are:

1.Organic 200mg/l

2.Inorganic 3000mg/l

3.Sulphates(as So3) 400mg/l

4.Chlorides(as cl) 2000mg/l for concrete not containing

embedded steel and 500mg/l for RCC works.

5.Suspended matter 2000mg/l.

54) Cracks are of live and dead . That is moving and non moving cracks.

For moving cracks use always a material that will accommodate the

movement. Ex. Joint sealant.

For rigid –structural cracks, use a materila that will add strength by bonding

with the parent member. Ex. Epoxies or cementitious proprietary material

55) To find the depth of RCC member from the moment for M20 & Fe 415,

d= 670.82√M/b where M is Knm,b=breath of the member in mm & d is in mm.

This is for the balanced reinforced section

56) To find the steel for a singly reinforced section of M20 and Fe415,

Ast =3077.44*M/d where M in Knm,d in mm & Ast in mm^2.

When M/bd^2 is less than 1.27 the steel area should be calculated using the lever arm, z= 0.95d.

57) The lap lenth of bars shall be in tension for Seismic forces and it can be safely taken as Ld= 50*dia of bar.

58)Strength of concrete for various period are:

Days/months Strength

7 days 2/3 of 28day strength(CP114)

28 days 1.0

2 months 1.1 (Table 5.1-p298-Properties of Concrete

by Adam Neville.)

3 months 1.16

6 months 1.2

12 months 1.24

59) The relation between the 28-day strength and 7 day strength which lies between

as given in Germany is

fc28 =1.4fc7 +1.0 &

fc28 =1.7fc7 +5.9 where fc being expressed in Mpa.

(page 300 –Properties of concrete by Adam Neville)

ACI RECOMMENDS

fcm(t) =f28{t/(4+0.85t)}

For 7 days the value comes to 0.71% of 28 days strength.

For 3 days the value comes to 0.458% of 28 days strength.

60) For rough estimation of reinf. Steel in construction projects following

thumb rules may be adopted:

Slab 50 TO 80Kg/m^3 of concrete.

Sunshade 50 Kg/m^3 of concrete.

Lintels 80Kg/m^3 of concrete.

Beams 100TO 150 Kg/m^3 of concrete.

Columns 150 to 225 Kg/m^3 of concrete.

Footing slab 80Kg/m^3 of concrete.

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