Sunteți pe pagina 1din 49

PHONETICS

Study of the physical properties of speech-


sounds
how they are made
how they are heard
how they are transmitted
PHONOLOGY
Study of the linguistic properties of
speech-sounds
the sound system of language
the sound systems of individual
languages

PHONETICS
Study of the physical properties of
speech-sounds

Articulatory Phonetics
how they are made
Auditory Phonetics
how they are heard
Acoustic Phonetics
how they are transmitted

PHONETICS
Study of the physical properties of speech-
sounds
how they are made
how they are heard
how they are transmitted
PHONOLOGY
Study of the linguistic properties of
speech-sounds
the sound system of language
the sound systems of individual
languages

PHONETICS
Universal: the study of the sounds
produced in human speech


PHONOLOGY
Local: the study of the sound system of
one single language or variety of language




The Talking
White Male
Head
(Ladefoged p.2)
5
Daniel Jones, 1918,
An Outline of
English Phonetics
Frontispiece from
the 9th edition,
1972
6
7
CLOSE (HIGH)
B
A
C
K

OPEN (LOW)
8
[e]
Phonetic symbols are shown in
square brackets:
/e/
Phonological symbols are shown
in slashes:
phones
phonemes
allophones
phones
phonemes
allophones
phones
sounds of
language
Segments
How fine can you slice language?
sentence
phrase
word
syllable
letter ... ?

Letters ?
cat rat
cat cot
cat cap
Letters ?
cat rat
cat cot
cat cap
Letters ?
cat coat caught
k V t
code keyed
k V d
right write rite
r V t

Segments
How thin can you slice language?
sentence
phrase
word
syllable
letter .......

phone
cat rat
cat cot
cat cap

top stop
lip milk
code cold
significant difference
- different word
non-significant
different
- change impossible
cat rat
cat cot
cat cap

top stop
lip milk
code cold
significant
non-significant
predictable
non-predictable
meaning
structure
cat rat
cat cot
cat cap

top stop
lip milk
code cold
PHONEMES
ALLOPHONES
phones are either:

phonemes
significant sound differences
meaning-based choice
allophones
non-significant sound differences
fixed choice
How can we tell whether a sound
is a phoneme or an allophone?

Minimal pairs
cat rat
cat cot
cat cap
kt rt
kt kot
kt kp
Minimal pairs
cat rat
tight tide
core score
nose knows
Korea career

service surface
kt rt
tait taid
kO(r) skO(r)
n0uz n0uz
k01ri0 k01ri0
k01ri0 k01rir
Minimal pairs
service surface


show snow
make maid
ghost toast
wail whale
1sEvis 1sEfis
1sErvis 1sErfis
1sEv0s 1sEf0s
S0u sn0u
meik meid
g0ust t0ust
weil weil
weil Weil
Minimal contexts
pressure measure
fission vision
1preS0 1meG0
1fiS0n 1viG0n
Allophones
top stop
pie spy
care scare
top stop
pai spai
ke0 ske0
ker sker
Allophones
top stop
pie spy
care scare

No free choice between p and pH.
Complementary distribution

tHop stop
pHai spai
kHe0 ske0
kHer sker
Compementary angles:
phoneme
allophone
/ /
[ ] [ ]
phoneme
allophone
Usually, of course, the different ALLOPHONES of
the same PHONEME are all similar to each other -
they form a FAMILY of sounds. But we mustn't
fall into the trap of thinking that ALLOPHONIC
difference is small while PHONEMIC difference is
large. There is actually no real difference between
these differences! We can see this by the fact that
the same difference can be allophonic in one
language, and phonemic in another.
from http://www.hi.is/~peturk/KENNSLA/02/TOP/phonemes.html
seat sheet
massive machine
basic nation
She is fine as morn in May,
mild, divine and clever.
Like a shining summers day
she is mine for ever.
Sr. Sigurur Norland Hindisvk
Mitsubishi
Subaru
phoneme
allophone
Mitsubishi Subaru
this theatre
think this thought

essi ing
essi ing
The lateral - l
lip
yellow
mill
miller
milk
people
l
http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~danhall/phonetics/sammy.html
l
phoneme
allophone
The phoneme /l/ is light before a
vowel, otherwise dark
The lateral - l
lip
yellow
mill
miller
milk
people
trouble follows the blameless
milkman like a wealthy lawyer

trbl fol0uz 0 bleimlis milkm0n laik 0 wel^
lOj0
lay
play
splay
clay
exclaim
(from week 6):
Is it followed
by a vowel?
Does it follow k or p
in a stressed syllable?
clay
play
lay
yellow
mill
milk