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Chapter 12

Global Marketing Management:


Planning and Organization
CHAPTER OUTLINE
Global marketing management
Planning for global markets
International market entry strategy
Criteria for evaluating entry strategies
Organizing for global competition
STANDARDIZATION-ADAPTATION
Planning involves 4 Ps
Standardization Adaptation Debate and
Continuum
Standardization_____________________Adaptation

Product 5______4______3______2______1
Price 5______4______3______2______1
Promotion 5______4______3______2______1
Distribution 5______4______3______2______1
Planning 5______4______3______2______1

Factors favoring Standardization or Adaptation
INTERNATIONAL PLANNING PROCESS
Information derived from each phase, market research, and evaluation
of program performance
Phase 1
Preliminary analysis and
screening: Matching
company/country needs
Phase 2
Defining market
segments and
adapting
marketing mix
Phase 3
Developing the
marketing
plan
Phase 4
Implemen-
tation and
control
Environmental factors,
company character, and
screening criteria
Matching mix
requirements
Marketing plan
development
Implementation,
evaluation, and
control
INTERNATIONAL MARKET ENTRY
STRATEGY
Exporting
Internet
Licensing
Franchising
Joint Ventures
Consortia
Direct Foreign Investment
CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING ENTRY
STRATEGIES
Legal considerations
Cost of the strategy
Company experience in similar venture
Competition at home and abroad
Risk incurred
Control
Complexity of product/service
Country factors: social, cultural, similarity
EVALUATING ENTRY STRATEGIES
Country
Complexity
Product
Experience
Competition
Control
Risk
Cost
Legal
DFI Consortia Joint
Ventures
Franchising Licensing Internet Exporting
Schematic Marketing Organization Plan Combining
Product, Geographic, and Functional Approaches
Company President
Director:
Passenger car
marketing
Director:
Truck
marketing
Research
Adv. Sales Adv. Sales Adv. Sales Adv. Sales Adv. Sales Adv. Sales
Vice President Marketing
Research
Manager
N. American
distribution
Manager
African
distribution
Manager
European
distribution
Manager
African
distribution
Manager
S.American
distribution
Manager
N. American
distribution
Irwin/McGraw-Hill
11-11
ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1. Explain the standardization-adaptation S-A
continuum. What factors favor Standardization
or Adaptation? Discuss.
2. Elaborate each phase of the International
Planning Process.
3. What are the criteria for evaluating entry
strategies in international markets? Discuss
each of them.
4. When should we opt for licensing over direct
investment? Explain.