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Joseph Beuys [German Conceptual Artist, 1921-1986]

The End of the 20th Century, 1982-3

From 1960 to Now

Hans Hofmann [German/American Abstract Expressionist, 1880-1966]

1. Premodernism: Original meaning is possessed by authority (for example, the
Catholic Church). The individual is dominated by tradition.

2. Modernism: The enlightenment-humanist rejection of tradition and authority in

favour of reason and natural science. This is founded upon the assumption of the
autonomous individual as the sole source of meaning and truth--the Cartesian cogito.
Progress and novelty are valorized within a linear conception of history--a history of
a "real" world that becomes increasingly real or objectified.

3. Postmodernism: A rejection of the sovereign autonomous individual with an

emphasis upon anarchic collective, anonymous experience. Collage, diversity, the
mystically unrepresentable, Dionysian passion are the foci of attention. Most
importantly we see the dissolution of distinctions, the merging of subject and object,
self and other. This is a sarcastic playful parody of western modernity and the "John
Wayne" individual and a radical, anarchist rejection of all attempts to define, reify or
re-present the human subject.
Modernism in the Arts
(ca 1860s – 1960s)

Manet: Au Café, 1878

Courbet: L'Origine du monde,1866

Klimt: The Kiss, 1907

Henri Matisse



Clement Greenberg

Robert Motherwell

Frank Stella
Henry Moore

Franz Kline

Edouard Manet
Abstract Expressionism

Helen Frankenthaler

Mark Rothko

Willem de Kooning

Barnett Newman

Jackson Pollock


Sarah Lucas, Au Naturel, 1994

Hepworth, Barbara Two Figures, 1954-55


Origins art, architecture, literature, science, social art, architecture, film, literature,

Key Writers Hegel, Marx, Freud, Arnold, Habermas, Lyotard, Jameson, Baudrillard, Rorty,
Dewey, Nietzsche Groux, Aronowitz, Grossberg, Simon,
Haraway, Nicholson

Key characteristics - Meta/grand/master narratives of Truth, - challenge to modernism

and concepts progress, civilization, universality, and - focus on difference/Other, multiplicity,
order and partiality;
- rationality, reason, and objectivity; - no foundation for knowledge
unity, order, and control a premise of - focus on culture and representation
freedom within late capitalism, hyper-reality,
- essential, unified subject simulacrum
- knowledge as foundational - collapse of hierarchies of culture;
- parody, pastiche, irony as dominant
forms of cultural commentary
- fragmented, contradictory subject

Forms/Types traditional/classical; progressive ludic; resistant; shocking; ironic

(ca. 1970s – present)

Robert Rauschenberg

David Hockney
Graves Astrid Park Plaza, Antwerp

Venturi column
Richter, Gerhard Betty, 1988

Fountain (after Marcel Duchamp: A.P.)

Sherrie Levine
Claes Oldenburg’s declaration of 1961:
‘I am for an art that is political-erotical-mystical …
I am for an art that embroils itself with everyday crap and still comes out on top’.

Claes Oldenburg
The Guerilla Girls

Barbara Kruger
Georg Baselitz
Nude Elke 2, 1976

Francesco Clemente
Atlas, 1982 Joerg Immendorff, Cafe Deutschland IV, 1978

Enzo Cucchi Painting of the Precious Fires, 1983

Julian Schnabel self portrait, 1987

Tansey, Mark Triumph of the New York School, 1984

Cindy Sherman
Troy Brauntuch

Sherrie Levine

Robert Longo
Trends in Postmodern Art
Art and Mass Culture

Barbara Kruger

Richard Hamilton

Andy Warhol
Trends in Postmodern Art

Tracy Emin, 'My Bed', 1998

Trends in Postmodern Art
Trends in Postmodern Art

Performance Art

Gilbert and George

Josef Beuys
Trends in Postmodern Art

Jo Spence
Trends in Postmodern Art


Australian Aboriginal Art

Emily Kame Kngwarreye
1910 - 1996
Trends in Postmodern Art

Art And Gender

Judy Chicago: The Dinner Party, 1979

Trends in Postmodern Art

Public Art and Controversy

Richard Serra: Tilted Arc, 1981 (now destroyed)