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# Todays Concepts:

## A) LC circuits and Oscillation Frequency

B) Energy
C) RLC circuits and Damping
Physics 2112
Unit 19
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 1
C
I
L
Q

LC Circuit
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 2
+
-
dt
dI
L V
L

+
-
C
Q
V
C

Circuit Equation:
0 +
dt
dI
L
C
Q
dt
dQ
I
LC
Q
dt
Q d
-
2
2
where
Q
dt
Q d
2
2
2
-
LC
1

) cos( ) (
max
+ t Q t Q
Solution to this DE:
C
L
k
x
m
F = -kx
a
Same thing if we notice that and
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 3
Q
dt
Q d
2
2
2
-
LC
1

m
k

x
dt
x d
2
2
2
-
C
k
1

L m
L m
Just like in 2111
k
x
m
F = -kx
a
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 4
Also just like in 2111
2 2
2
1
2
1
kx mv
Total Energy constant (when no friction present)
C
L
2
2
2
1
2
1
LI
C
Q

## Total Energy constant (when no resistor present)

C
L
I
+ +
- -
Q and I Time Dependence
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 5
Charge and Current 90
o
out of
phase
What is the potential difference across the inductor at t = 0?

A) V
L
= 0
B) V
L
= Q
max
/C
C) V
L
= Q
max
/2C
At time t = 0 the capacitor is fully
charged with Q
max
and the current
through the circuit is 0.
L
C
since V
L
V
C
CheckPoint 1
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 6
CheckPoint 2
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 7
At time t = 0 the capacitor is fully
charged with Q
max
and the current
through the circuit is 0.
L
C
What is the potential difference across the inductor at when the current is
maximum?

A) V
L
= 0
B) V
L
= Q
max
/C
C) V
L
= Q
max
/2C
How much energy is stored in the capacitor when the
current is a maximum ?

A) U Q
max
2
/(2C)
B) U Q
max
2
/(4C)
C) U 0
CheckPoint 3
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 8
At time t = 0 the capacitor is fully
charged with Q
max
and the current
through the circuit is 0.
L
C
L=0.82H
Example 19.1 (Charged LC circuit)
Unit 19, Slide 9
1
2
After being left in
position 1 for a long
time, at t=0, the
switch is flipped to
position 2.

All circuit elements
are ideal.
C=0.01F
V=12V
What is the equation for the charge on the upper
plate of the capacitor at any given time t?
How long does it take the lower plate of the
capacitor to fully discharge and recharge?
R=10W
Example 19.1 (Charged LC circuit)
Unit 19, Slide 10
How long does it take the lower
plate of the capacitor to fully
discharge and recharge?
Conceptual Analysis
Fill in all the terms in
Strategic Analysis
Find initial current
Use energy conservation to find Q
max
Use L and C to find
Use initial conditions to final

What is the equation for the charge
on the upper plate of the capacitor
at any given time t?
) cos( ) (
max
+ t Q t Q
The switch is closed for a long
current V
b
/R through the
inductor.

A. Q(t) = Q
max
cos(t)
B. Q(t) = Q
max
cos(t + /4)
C. Q(t) = Q
max
cos(t + /2)
D. Q(t) = Q
max
cos(t + )
Prelecture Question
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 11
At time t = 0, the switch is opened, leaving a simple LC circuit.
Which formula best describes the charge on the capacitor as a
function of time?
The capacitor is charged such that the
top plate has a charge +Q
0
and the
bottom plate -Q
0
. At time t 0, the
switch is closed and the circuit
oscillates with frequency 500
What is the value of the capacitor C?

A) C = 1 x 10
-3
F
B) C = 2 x 10
-3
F
C) C = 4 x 10
-3
F
L
C
L = 4 x 10
-3
H
+ +
- -
CheckPoint 4
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 12
Which plot best represents the energy
in the inductor as a function of time
starting just after the switch is closed?
L
C
closed at t = 0
+Q
0
-Q
0
CheckPoint 5
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 13
2
2
1
LI U
L

## When the energy stored in the

capacitor reaches its maximum
again for the first time after t 0,
how much charge is stored on the
top plate of the capacitor?
A) +Q
0

B) +Q
0
/2
C) 0
D) -Q
0
/2
E) -Q
0

CheckPoint 6
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 14
L
C
closed at t = 0
+Q
0
-Q
0
Current goes to zero twice during one cycle
Q is maximum when current goes to zero
dt
dQ
I
Unit 19, Slide 15
1
2
Switch is flipped to
position 2.
R
0
1
2
2
- - - Q
C dt
dQ
R
dt
Q d
L
0
2
+ + c bt at
Use characteristic
equation
Damped Harmonic Motin
Unit 19, Slide 16
) ' cos(

+
-
t e Q Q
t
Max
L
R
2

2 2 2
' -
o
Damping
factor
Damped
oscillation
frequency
LC
o
1

Natural
oscillation
frequency
Remember from 2111?
Mechanics Lecture 21, Slide 17
Overdamped

Critically damped

Under damped
Which one do you want for your shocks
L=0.82H
Example 19.2 (Charged LC circuit)
Unit 19, Slide 18
1
2
After being left in
position 1 for a long
time, at t=0, the switch
is flipped to position 2.

The inductor now non-
ideal has some internal
resistance.

What is the equation for the charge on the capacitor at
any given time t?
C=0.01F
V=12V
R
L
=7W
R=10W
How long does it take the lower plate of the capacitor to
fully discharge and recharge?
The elements of a circuit are very simple:
This is all we need to know to solve for anything.

But these all depend on each other and vary with time!!
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 19
dt
dI
L V
L

C
Q
V
C

dt
dQ
I
IR V
R

R C L
V V V V + +
V(t) across each elements
L

Now take a tiny time step dt (1 ms)
Repeat
How would we actually do this?
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 20
C
Q
V
C

IR V
R

dt
L
V
I d
L

Idt dQ
C R L
V V V V - -
What would this look like?
In the circuit to the right
R
1
= 100 ,
L
1
= 300 mH,
L
2
= 180 mH,
C = 120 F and
V = 12 V.
Example 19.3
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 21
The positive terminal of the battery is indicated with a + sign. All elements are
considered ideal. Q(t) is defined to be positive if V(a) V(b) is positive.

What is the charge on the bottom plate of the capacitor at time t = 2.82 ms?

Conceptual Analysis
Find the equation of Q as a function of time
Strategic Analysis
Determine initial current
Determine oscillation frequency
0
Find maximum charge on capacitor
Determine phase angle
In the circuit to the right
R
1
= 100 ,
L
1
= 300 mH,
L
2
= 180 mH,
C = 120 F and
V = 12 V.
Example 19.4
Electricity & Magnetism Lecture 19, Slide 22
The positive terminal of the battery is indicated with a + sign. All elements are
considered ideal. Q(t) is defined to be positive if V(a) V(b) is positive.

What is the energy stored in the inductors at time t = 2.82 ms?

Conceptual Analysis
Use conservation of energy
Strategic Analysis
Find energy stored on capacitor using information from Ex 19.3
Subtract of the total energy calculated in the clicker question