Sunteți pe pagina 1din 110

Leadership

Lecturer: Nguyen Thuy Tran


Chapter 1: Definition and
Significance of Leadership
1.1 Definition of leadership
- Leading: as guiding and directing on a course and
as serving as a channel.
Elements of leadership:
1. Ledership is a phenomenon
2. Leadership is goal directed and action oriented
3. The presence of leaders assumes some form of
hierachy within a group
1. Effective Leadership
A Leader: as any person who influences
individuals and groups within an organization,
helps them establish goals, and guides the toward
achievemnt of those goals, thereby allowing them
to be effective.
a. Fred Fiedler:
Leadership effectiveness is in terms of goup
performance
Leaders are effective when their group performs
well
b. Robert Houses Path-Goal Theory:
Leadership effectiveness considers follower
satisfaction
Leaders are effective when their followers are
satisfied.

1.2. Definition of Effectiveness
c. Others working on transformational and
visionary models
Effectivenss as the successful implementation of
large scale change in an organization

Leaders are effective when their followers achieve
their goals, can function well together, and can
adapt to changing demand from external forces.
d. Leadership effectiveness:
- Goal achievement
- Smooth internal processes
- External adaptability
Goal achievement: meeting financial goals,
producing quality products or sevices, addressing
the needs of customers
Smooth internal processes: group cohesion,
follower satisfaction, and effecient operation
External adaptability: a groups ability to change
and evole successfully
1.3 The importance of leaders
a. To keep groups orderly and focused:
Individuals have common goals, needs, and
aspiration
Leaders need to pull the members together,
organize, and coordinate their efforts
b. To accomplish tasks:
Leaders provide groups with goals, directions, and
coordinate activities to get accomplishments

c. To make sense of the world:
Groups and leaders provide members with a
perceptual check
d. To be romantic ideals:
Leaders represent people and symbolize their own,
cultures ideals and accomplishments



2.1 Uncertainty:
Creates presessure for quick responses and
solution
Implementing new methods of leadership makes
dealing with complexity and uncertainty.
2. Obstacles to effective leadership
2.2 Rigid and unforgiving:
Some organizations do not allow for mistakes and
experimentation in short term
2.3 Old ideas and simplistic solutions:
They are used as temporary solutions
New and complex problems needs suitable ideas
and solutions

2.4 Culture:
Leaders face resistance created by the establish
culture when trying new ideas and experiment with
new methods.
2.5 The findings of academic research:
Academic research sometimes do not clarify the
application of their research.
They are inaccessible to practitioners
Managers Leaders
Focus on present Focus on future
Maintain status quo and stability Create change
Implement policies and procedures Initiate goals and strategies
Maintain existing struture Create a culture based on shared values
Remain aloof to maintain objectivity Establsish an emotional link w followers
Use position power Use personal power
2. Leadership and management
Leaders have long term and future-oriented
perspectives and provide a vision for followers
Managers take short term perpectives and focus on
routine issues within their department and groups
An effective and successful managers can be
considered a leader, a less competent manager is
not a leader.
3.1 Mangerial roles
Roles: The sets of expected behaviors ascribed to
them by virtue of their leadership position
Leaders are ascried strategic and external roles
Provide their organization vision and mission
3. Roles and functions of leaders
Henry Mintzberg: 10 managerial roles/activities
- Figurehead, leaders, liaison, monitor, disseminator,
spokesperson, entreprenuer, distubance handler,
resource allocator, and negotiator
Sally Helgesen: Gender differences have different
leadership styles


Men:
- Identity was tied directly to ther job
- Feel isolated
- Have a complex network of colleagues outside work
- Prefer face to face interaction

Women:
- Face to face communicaiton
- Report work with calm
- Not consider unscheduled events to be
interruptions
- Reported working at a number of non-work-related
activities
- Cultivate multifaceted identities do not feel
isolated
3.2 Functions of the leader:
Creation and maintenance of an organizational
culture
Workoholic and control oriented leaders the
organization is centralized and make decisions fast
Participative and team oriented leaders the
organization will be decentralized and open
Leaders passion will traslate into organizational
mission

Leaders are role models for organizational
members
Humphery: Leaders manage the emotions of group
member
Leaders accept responsibility for ones action
Leaders decide reward system:
- Rewards: financial and nonfinacial afford
Leaders make decisions for the organization about
it structure and strategy
- Decentralized and organic structure is the result of
an open and participative structure
- Centralized structure is result of mechanistic
culture
Summary:
Leaders create and maintain organizational culture
through:
- Role modeling
- Reward system
- Hiring decision
- Strategy and structure
4. Leadership make a different
4.1 Arguments regarding the impact of
leadership
a. Leadership is insignificant
Outside environmental factors affect organizations
more than leadership
Internal structure and strategy determine the
course an organization takes.

Leadership accounts for only 7 to 15 percent of
financial performance
Leaders have little discretion to make a real impact
Leadership is a romantic myth rather than an
actual organizational factor.

b. Leadership has an impact
Leadership is one of the many important factors
Leadership is key in providing vision and direction.
Leadership can account for up to 44 percent of a
firms profitable
Leadership is critical in orchestrating change.
Leaderships impact is moderated by situational
factors
4.2 Reconciling the differences
Leadership is one of many factors that influence
the performance of a group or an organization
Leaders contribution provides a vision and
direction for followers and integrates their activities
A leader does have limited power and discretion
over the group and the organization (chapter 3,7)
Lacking of leadership emphasizes the importance
of followers in the success of leadership and the
need to understand organizations as broad systems
5.1 New roles for leaders
Control-oriented leadership
Results-oriented leadership
(Figure 1-2, p.16)
5. Changes in organizations and in
expectations of leaders
5.2 Factors fueling changes: 4 factors
a. Increased organization:
Fierce international competions needs new
solutions
It demands new leadership roles and procedure


b. Worldwide political changes:
Increase global and local competition
Changes in technologies,
Reconsider quality of services and products;
customer service and public awareness
c. Demographic changes
Demographic factors: age, ethnic, gender, or
cultural background
Increase diversity in the various groups and
organizations
Leaders must consider this diversity when making
decisions

d. Employee expectation:
Increase number of women in the workplace
Employees attain increased level of education
Younger employees expect participation and autonomy
They expect fast promotion, challenges, training, and
work-life balance
Leaders need to listen to and address the needs of
nonhomogeneous group
5.3 Barriers to change
Financial pressure: causes autocratic leaders
affecting employee motivation and loyalty
Top management remains a one person show: Old
culture, traditional hierachical barries, and etc
Employees are still rewared for individual
performance even though they work in a team



Chapter 2: The global and
cultural contexts
1.1 Definition and characteristics
a. Definition of Culture:
A set of norms, customs, values, and assumptions
that guides the behaviors of a particular group of
people
b. Characteristics of culture:
Includes lifestyle of a group
Shared by member of a group

1. Definition and level of culture
Permanent
Passed down form one generation to another

Culture affects how people view the world and how
they think, and therefore shape behavior.
Culture is also dynamic and changes over time as
members adapt to new event and their
environment

1.2 Levels of culture: 3 levels
a. National culture:
Set of values and beliefs shared by people within a
nation
b. Group culture:
Different ethnic and other cultural group that live in
a nation (gender, religious, and racial differences)

c. Organizational culture:
Set of values, norm, and beliefs shared by
members of an organization.
Organizations develop a unique culture sharing
common values and beliefs about work-related
issues
Different organizational cultures have different
models of leadership effectiveness
All three levels of culture shape peoples views and
expectations of their leaders.

2.1 Halls high-context and low-context
culture framework
a. High-context culture:
Leaders rely on context including nonverbal cues
and situational factors to communicate with others
They use personal relationship to establish
communication and understand world around them
Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South America
2. Models of national culture
b. Low-context culture
Leaders focus on explicit, specific verbal, and
written messages to understand people and
situation.
North America and much of Western Europe
Leaders need to face the difference between
high and low context when they interact with the
cultures.

2.2 Hofstedes five cultural dimension: 5
dimensions
- Individualism
- Power distance
- Uncertainty avoidance
- Masculinity
- Time orientation
a. Individualism:
The extent to which individuals or a closely knit
social structure
Leads to reliance on self and focus on individual
achievement.

b. Power distance:
The extent to which people accept unequal
distribution of power.
c. Uncertainty avoidance:
The extent to which the culture tolerates ambiguity
and uncertainty
d. Masculinity
The extent to which assertiveness and
independence form other is valued
e. Time orientation
The extent to which people focus on past, present,
or future
2.3 Harry Triandis cultural dimensions
a. Individualistic:
Focus on the individual where each person is
considered unique based on accomplishment and
performance
Each individual are considered equal to others
without a strong hierarchy

b. Collectivistic:
Strong group feeling with clear rank and status
differentiation among group members
Member feel obligation to obey authority and
scarify themselves for the group
All member in group are equal
2.4 Trompenaars Dimension of culture
a. Incubator cultures:
Individual-oriented
Focus on taking care of individual needs.
Leaders removes obstacles.
b. Guided Missile:
Performance-oriented
Leaders as a guide
Focus on achieving common goal
Incubator and guided missile are egalitarian
culture
c. Family:
Power oriented
Leader is a strong, caring parent
Focus on building relationships
d. Eiffel Tower
Rigid and robust
Leader is undisputed, legitimate boss
Focus on rational performance
2.5 Global leadership and organizational
behavior effectiveness research
Culture affects what leaders do and how
organizations are structured and managed
U.S is among the highest in assertiveness and
performance orientation
U.S fall in the middle in all the other dimension
Understand table 2-3, p. 37.

3.1 Gender and leadership
a. Francis, Nancy, and Barbara:
Gender and leadership:
- Consider a female style of leadership
- Women are at the center rather than at the top
- Their employees can access to them
- Do not feel isolated
3. Group culture: Gender and
diversity
b. Carol Smith
Female bosses tend to be better mangers,
advisors, mentors, and rational thinkers.

Whether women and men lead differently or
not, there are differences between them in term of
the presence and power each group has in
organizations.
3.2 Causes of gender differences in leadership
Gender differences in leadership styles
Balancing work and home
Women are less committed to work and career
Women have less experience in organization
Women quit their job more often
Women are less educated
Blatant and subtle discrimination
Persistent gender stereotypes
Glass ceiling
Cultural factors
Cultivate a ways of thinking where culture is taken
into consideration in deliberations, decisions, and
behaviors.
Acquire simple skills and competencies
Start with and require a new way of thinking:
cultural mindset.
4. Developing a cultural mindset
Encourage people acquire in-depth knowledge
about all the culture they face
Understand culture differences and their impact on
behavior to interact with and leader others.
Chapter 3: Early Theories
1.1 The trait Era: late 1800s to Mid 1940s
Leaders are born
Leaders were endowed with special qualities that
allowed them to lead others
Leaders are more sociable, aggressive, and lively
1. History of modern leadership
theory: Three eras

1.2 The behavior era: Mid-1940s to Early
1970s
Emphasizes what an effective leader does
Behaviors can be observed, measured, taught
Leadership is a learned or acquired skill: offering
training and educational programs
Learning is the most important element to prepare
people to become better leaders
1.3 Contingency era: Early 1960s to present
There is no one best way to lead
People can learn to become good leader
Situation and contextual factors determine
effective styles or behaviors


Leadership makes a difference in the effectiveness
of groups and organizations
Personal and situational characteristics affect
leadership effectiveness

2.1 Great Man theory
Assumes that the traits of leadership are intrinsic
Great leaders are born not made
Great leaders as those who are destined by birth to
become a leader



2. Early theories
2.2 Contingency theories
a. Feidlers Contingency theory
Effective leadership depends not only on the style
of leading but also on the control over a situation
Needs:
- Good leader-member relations
- Task with clear goals and procedures
- The ability for leaders to establish rewards and
punishments.


He uses the least preferred coworker (LPC) to
determine a leaders style and motivation
Motivation: task motivation (low LPC) or
relationship motivation (high LPC)
Task motivated:
- Self-esteem from completion of task
- Focus on task first
- Hash with failing employee
- Considers competence of coworkers to be key trait
- Enjoy details


Relationship motivated:
- Self-esteem from interpersonal relationships
- Focus on people
- Like to please others
- Consider loyalty of coworker to be key trait
- Get bored with details
b. Path-Goal theory
Leaders provide followers with information,
support, and resources to help them achieve their
goals
Leaders help clarify path to the workers goal
Leaders can display multiple leadership styles


2.3 Transactional leadership theories
Exchange theories of leadership, are characterized
by a transaction made between the leader and the
followers
Values a positive and mutually beneficial
relationship



Leaders must find a mean to align to adequately
reward (or punish) his follower.
Seek to maximize pleasurable experiences and to
diminish un-pleasurable experiences.




2.4 Transformational leadership theories
A leader interacts with others and is able to create
a solid relationship increasing trust, motivation,
both intrinsic and extrinsic.
Leaders transform their followers through their
inspirational nature and charismatic personalities
Rules and regulations are flexible, guided by group
norms


a. Leader and member exchange theory
How leaders maintains leadership through working
with their supporters
Leaders form special relationship with a small
group of followers: The in-group
The in-group is trusted and gets more time and
attention from the leaders (more exchange)


All others are out of the in-group, get less the
leaders attention, and have formal relation with
the leader (fewer exchange)
2.5 Situational Theories:
Leaders choose the best course of action based
upon situational variables
Different styles of leadership may be more
appropriate for certain types of decision-making

2.6 Participative Theories:
An ideal leadership style is one that takes the input
of others into account
Leaders encourage participation and contributions
from group members
Leaders help group members feel more relevant
and committed to the decision-making process


Chapter 4: Individual Differences
and Traits
1.1. Two determinants of individual
characteristics
Heredity and Environment:
a. Heredity: consist of individuals gene pool,
gender, race, end ethnic background.
b. Environment: include physical location, family,
culture, religion, education, and friends
1. Elements of Individual Difference
Characteristics
1.2 Interaction between heredity and
environment

Environment and social conditions can
reinforce generic patterns to influence a leaders
personality, the education system, and parental
upbringings.

1.3 Fours individual difference characteristics
a. Demographic factors: such as age, and ethnic
background
b. Values: are stable, long-lasting beliefs end
preference about what is worthwhile and desirable
c. Personality: is a stable set of physical and
psychological characteristics that make each person
unique.
d. Abilities and Skills
Ability, or aptitude, is a natural talent for doing
something mental or physical, such as intelligence
A skill is an acquired talent that a person develops
related to a specific task.
Ability is somewhat stable over time, skills
change with training and experience from one task to
another
1.4 Multiple perspectives and the impact of the
situation
To understand who people are and what makes
them unique, we could consider all possible
aspects of personality, values, attitudes,
demographic factors, abilities, and skills as well as
the various situations a person face


When situations provide little guidance, a persons
individual characteristics an have a strong impact
When the situations provide strong behavioral
cues, most people behave according to the cues
Cues: signal what behaviors and actions are
expected and appropriate.
1.5 Individual characteristics provide a range
Individual characteristics: personality traits,
values, demographic factors, and abilities and skills
Range:
- Zone of comfort: includes a range of behaviors that
come naturally and feel comfortable to perform
- Zone of discomfort: behaving out side of comfort
zone is difficult, needs practices, and might not be
able in some case.
An effective learning tool is that people need
move outside the comfort zone to grow up
The behaviors in discomfort zone challenge
people and push them to their limits.
1.6 Traits revisited: A fresh look at leaders
individual characteristics and behaviors
Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991): listed key traits
needed for effective leadership
- Drive, which includes motivation and energy
- Desire and motivation to lead
- Honesty and integrity
- Self-confidence
- Intelligence
- Knowledge of business

Traits of intelligence and drive: cannot be gained
through training
Traits of knowledge and self-confidence: can be
acquired with time and appropriate experience
Trait of honesty: is a simple choice
Trait of integrity and honesty: a key factor in
leadership
Kurt, Boone, and Fleenor: Survey on 800 U.S
leaders
- All were male
- They were first born in two-parent
- They had middle-class family
- 90% of them were married with median age of 58
- They are religious


2. Demographic characteristics of
leaders
- 80% of the leader were right-handed
- They were taller and smoked less than others
- They tended o exercise a fair amount
- The leaders were more educated than others
Although women and minorities have made their
ways up in many organization, formal organizational
leadership is still dominated by males.

3.1 Value system and culture
People have personal value system around which
they prioritize their actions
Factors influences on an individuals values:
- Gender:
> Women: tend to place higher value on family and
social issues
> Men: focus on economic problems

3. Value
Cultural differences:
- Culture values indicate what a cultural group
considers important and desirable
- The cultural values form the basis for a leaders
individual value system
- Euro-American cultures: value individuality
- Collectivist cultures: place a higher values on
community



3.2 Generational differences
Taylor and Morin (2009): United State believe
younger generation has
- Worse moral values
- Less respect for others
- Lower work ethics than their parents

Older generation consider (Tyson, 2002)
- Loyalty
- Regular work hours
- Consistent attendance
- Less optimistic and confidence about future
Younger generations consider (Tyson, 2002)
- Hop from one job to another
- Work odd shift
- Rely on technology
- Work late into the night
- May not consider traditional 8-hour workday

3.3 Values and ethics
Ethics are persons concept of right and wrong
General views of ethics: two view
> Relativist view:
- What is right or wrong depends on the situation or
culture
- Ethics is strongly influenced by culture
> Universalist view:
- All activities should be judged by the same
standards

4.1 Intelligence:
Traditional definition:
The complex task of leading requires a person with a
cognitive ability to remember, collect and integrate
information, analyze problems, develop solutions,
and evaluate alternatives.
4. Abilities and skills
4.2 Practical and emotional intelligence
Practical intelligence:
- The types of abilities and attributes that people use
to solve everyday challenges they many face
- Leaders change their behaviors to adapt to the
environment, manipulate the environment, or find
new environment to succeed.
Emotional intelligence: EI or EQ
- Describes the social interpersonal aspect of
intelligence.
- People with high EI/EQ can:
> Control their moods and feelings well
Stay motivated and focused even facing obstacles
Calm themselves

Read others emotions and feel empathy for them
Build strong relationship
Conflict resolution and negotiation
- Understand table 4-2, p.113

4.3 Creativity
Creative leaders share 4 characteristics
- Perseverance in the face of obstacles and self-
confidence.
- Willingness to take risks
- Willingness to grow and openness to experience
- Tolerance of ambiguity
4.4 Skills
Leadership skills: three types
- Technical skills:
Knowledge of the job process, method, tools, and
techniques
- Interpersonal skills:
Communication, conflict management, negotiation,
team building
- Conceptual skills:
- Problem solving, logical thinking, decision making,
creativity, reasoning in general
5.1 The big five personality dimensions
Table 4-4, p.117
- Conscientiousness
- Extraversion/introversion
- Openness to experience
- Emotional stability
- Agreeableness
5. Relevant personality traits
5.2 Other personality traits
a. Locus of control
An indicator of an individuals sense of control over
the environment and external events
Internal locus: many events around people are a
result of their actions.
External locus: Events in peoples lives to forces
external to them (luck, other powerful people,
religious faith)

b. Type A:
Shows a high need for control
Four general characteristics:
- Time urgency
- Competitiveness
- Polyphasic behaviors
- Hostility
Work-related behaviors:
- Poor delegation
- Like to work alone
- Jump into action
- Set high goals
- Hard working
- Experience more stress
c. Self monitoring:
People are an open book, and their behaviors is
consistent in many different situations
d. Machiavellian personality:
An individuals willingness to put self-interest and
his or her performance above the interest of the
group and a persons ability to influence and
manipulate other for personal gain

e. Narcissism
People who have an exaggerated need to be the
center of attention, an oversized sense of self-
importance, and a limited ability to think about
others.
An abrasive, intimidating style
Coldness and arrogance
Untrustworthiness
Self-centeredness and overly political behaviors
Poor communication
Poor performance
Inability to delegate
6. Characteristics of leaders who
fail