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Types of Explosives

Introduction to Explosives
Low Explosives (Burns or Deflagrate)
High Explosives (Detonates or Explodes)
Velocity of Detonation:- Upto 31500 Km/Hr
Blast Pressure:- Upto 40,00,000 PSI
Heat Generated:- 4 to 5000 degree Celsius
During an Explosion
Block Diagram of a Bomb
Explosive Material
Switch
Battery
Detonator Wires
Requirements of a Bomb
Explosive Material Detonator Wires
Power Source (Batteries) Switch
Explosives Commonly Used
Gun Powder
Gelatin Sticks
TNT RDX,C/3,C/4
Nitroglycerine
PENT
Cortex
Semtex
Sulphur
Potassium Nitrate Lead Azide
Combinations of various chemicals & acids. viz.
Potassium Chlorate + Sugar + Sulphuric Acid
Types of Explosive Devices
Time Control Anti Tilt
Anti Lift
Speed Control
Vibration
Anti Roll
Light Control Anti Operate
Anti Open
Release Pressure
Apply Pressure Remote
Types of Bomb Threats
Specific
Non-Specific
Building is identified
Specific area/floor/department mentioned
Exact date /time is stated
If the above factors are not available or given
then the threat can be classified as non specific.
These threats cannot be neglected, & a search of
the building is to be carried out as per procedure.

Receipt of bomb threat
message. Tele/Written
Questioning technique
Background noise
Completion of bomb threat check list
Notification to Security
manager/control room
Inform superiors
Alert police/bomb squad
Medical/ambulance
Notify fire brigade Inform bomb threat committee
Assembly of bomb
threat committee
Senior manager
Police
Explosive expert
Alert search team
Evaluation
of bomb call
Assess credibility of message
Risk analysis
Evaluate threat Specific/nonspecific
Search
Evacuation
Decide type of search
Posting of guide
Control evacuation
Assembly area surveillance
Bomb not detected Bomb located
Complete evacuation
Place sand bags
Await bomb squad
Disposal of bomb
Decide RSP technique
Collect evidence for investigation
Bomb Threat Drill
Investigation
Charge-sheet
Conviction
Call off all
activities
Search & Evacuation Options
Evacuate all & search
Evacuate partially & search
Search without evacuation
Search after evacuation
Fully evacuate & do not search
Search & Evacuation depends on:
Number of hoax calls recently received
Loss of man-hour & production
Possible injury to people during evacuation
Number of staff/customers to be evacuated
Loss of goodwill & subsequent loss of business
Number of exit route & doors
Proximity & danger to neighboring buildings
Liabilities in case explosion occurs
Search Procedures
Entire building is to be searched looking
out for the following:-
Loose switchboards & paneling
Unusual or out of place objects
Loose electrical fittings
Disturbed carpeting
Scratch marks or fresh paint
Dusty footprints
New brick work or plastering
Greasy paper packing
Tin foils, Batteries, Safety fuses & dirty ropes
Loose wires or insulation pieces
Partially open windows & drawers
Brick powder or saw dust
Room Search Levels
First Sweep
Second Sweep
Third Sweep
Floor to Waist level
Waist to Head level
Head to Ceiling level
If the room has a false ceiling, an additional sweep
is to be carried out searching all electrical wires,
air-conditioning ducts & all such things between
false ceiling & the roof.
Additional Sweep
On completion of search, each room to be clearly
marked with bright coloured chalks indicating
search has been completed.
Dos & Don'ts During Evacuation
Walk out in a quiet manner to assembly point
Open all doors & windows
Help ladies/aged/handicapped while evacuation
Wait in the assembly area till further instruction
Dont spread rumors & cause panic
Switch off all power supply before leaving
Carry all personal belongings with you
Dont run during evacuation
Dont use lifts
Follow instruction of marshal during evacuation
Dont ask any questions to the marshals
Take head count & report shortfalls
Letter/Book Bomb (Definition)
To injure or kill an individual
To terrorise or create panic in public
Dimensions
3 Cms
4X6
50 to 100 gms
Purpose
A letter/book designed to explode when opened,
causing serious injury or death to the person
opening it & could be fatal for any target.
Thickness
Length
Weight
3 - 4
12X8
300 to 400 gms
Letter Book
How to Detect a Letter Bomb
Extra postage stamp
Misspelled name
Senders address not on the cover
Address with title only & no name
Excessively secured
Visual distraction
Envelope with holes
Discolouration / oil stains
Smell of almond
Uneven / lopsided envelope
Envelopes marked Secret or Confidential
Hand written address
Action on Locating Suspicious Object
Inform Control room & Security Manager
Evacuate to a safe distance (100 Meters)
Open all doors & windows of that area
Dont touch, open, move, tilt or roll the object
Place sand bags around the suspected object
Buttress Server/EDP & other sensitive rooms
Questioning employees of the area/investigation
Dont permit re-entry till area is declared safe
Inform Bomb squad, Fire Brigade, Ambulance
Dont accept anything on the face value
Handle the object alone if you are duty bound
Dont use Radio equipment or flashlight nearby
Dont cut strings/wires or pass metallic objects
Dont be a DEAD HERO