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Definition of Marketing Research

The systematic and objective identification,

collection, analysis and reporting of
information for the purpose of assisting
management in decisions relating to the
identification and solution of problems and
opportunities in marketing.
Goal of Marketing Research
To provide:
and timely
information to facilitate marketing decision making.
Research May Not Be Advisable
• the information exists already
• research is used to justify a prior decision
• research would alter competition
• time is the enemy
• the budget is inadequate
• the problem is vague or unclear
• the research is not technically feasible
The Research Process
Problem Definition

Develop an Approach to the Problem

Formulate Research design

Fieldwork/Data Collection

Data Preparation & Analysis

Report Preparation & Presentation

A Classification of Marketing Research

Marketing Research

Problem Problem
Identification Solving
Research Research

•Market Potential Research •Segmentation Research

•Market Share Research •Product Research
•Image Research •Pricing Research
•Market Characteristics •Promotion Research
•Sales Analysis Research •Distribution Research
Decision and Research Problems

• Develop package for • Evaluate effectiveness

new product of various designs
• Increase repeat buying • Assess current repeat
behaviour buying patterns
• Introduce new product • Design test market
Proper Definition of the Research Problem

Marketing Research Problem

Broad Statement

Specific Components
The Problem Definition Process
Discussions Interviews Secondary Qualitative
with With Data Research
Decision Experts Analysis

Environmental Context of the problem

Problem Definition

Management Decision Problem

Marketing Research Problem

Problem Definition
• What decisions will be made on the basis of this
• How will research influence these decisions?
• What is the most (least) desirable outcome of the
research? Why?
• What information will make a difference in the
• Why not make a decision on the basis of sound
A Classification of Marketing Research

Research Design

Exploratory Research Design Conclusive Research Design

Descriptive Research Causal Research

Cross-Sectional Design Longitudinal Design

A Comparison of Basic Research Designs

Exploratory Descriptive Causal

Objective: Discovery of ideas Describes market Determine cause and effect

Characteristics: Flexible, versatile. Prior formulation of Manipulate independent

hypothesis. Planned, variables. Control of
Front end research.
structured design other variables.

Methods: Secondary data Surveys Experiments

Differences Between Exploratory and
Conclusive Research

Exploratory Conclusive

Objective: To provide insights, understandings. Test hypothesis/examine relationships.

Characteristics: Information needed defined loosely. Information needed is clearly defined.
Research process flexible/unstructured. Research process is formal and structured.
Sample is small and nonrepresentative. Sample is large and representative.
Analysis of primary data is qualitative. Data Analysis is quantitative.
Findings: Tentative. Conclusive.
Outcome: Followed by conclusive research. Findings input into decision making.
A Classification of Marketing Research Data
Research Data

Secondary Primary
Data Data

Qualitative Quantitative
Data Data

Descriptive Causal

Survey Data Observational Experimental

& Other Data Data
Marketing Research Suppliers and
Research Suppliers

Internal External

Full Service Limited Service

Syndicated Customized Field Coding and Data

Services Services Services Data Entry Analysis
Services Services
The Marketing Research Process:

An Exemplar
Background to Research Project

• Retail Location (micro-scale)

• Pre-purchase Information Seeking

• Marketing Research Methodology

Research Objectives

• Unobtrusive Observation

• Face-to-face Interviews

• Retailer Survey
Methodological Matters

• Ethics?
• Choice of Location?
• Observation Possible?
• Interview Possible?
• Sampling Procedure?
Layout of Abbeycentre
Total Observed = 250
Refusal = 28
Lost = 12
Staff =8
Other = 13
Total Non-response = 61
Response Rate = 75.6%
Observation Response Rate = 86.9%
Retailer Response Rate = 100.0%

• Shopper Recall

• Retailer Perceptions

• Shopper Behaviour
Shopper Recall
• 40% of interviewees has total recall of
shops visited

• 62% of total shops visited recalled by


• Exaggeration of time spent in centre

Retailer Perceptions

• Time Expended

• Sex

• Percentage Purchase
Layout of Abbeycentre
Shopper Circulation

• Limited in Extent

• Variation in Intensity

• Problem Area Identification

Shopper Circulation Behaviour
Mall Pass Pass-Enter Pass-Buy
Section Ratio1 Ratio2 Ratio3
1. 0.55 0.76 0.51
2. 0.63 0.42 0.20
3. 0.61 0.75 0.53
4. 0.89 N/A N/A
5. 0.58 0.98 0.88
6. 0.73 0.61 0.47
7. 0.73 0.54 0.17
8. 0.53 0.98 0.62

1. The proportion of shopping groups passing through mall

2. Shop entrants as a proportion of passers-by
3. Purchasers as a proportion of passers-by
Shopper Circulation & Problem Areas
Compatibility Tables
Shop Linkages

• Shop to Shop Movement

• Advantages of Proximity

• Variation by Trade Type

Other Issues

• Group Behaviour

• Window Shopping

• Social Interaction