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Voice over IP Protocols Stack

Presentation G.729(A)/G.723(.1)/G.711

Session H.323/H.323Gateway/SIP/SDP

Transport RTP/UDP/RSVP

Network IP/WFQ/IP-prec

Link MLPPP/FR/ATM AAL1

Physical –––
Protoco
l H.32
3
H.323 Background
 ITU H.323 issued in 1996
 H.323 was intended to be non-ISDN
replacement of H.320 for packet-
based multimedia communications
 Distributed call processing with
intelligent endpoints
 Addressing by E.164 or account name
H.323 standard of the following
Feature Protocol
Call signaling H.323
Media Control H.245
Audio Codec's G.711, G.722, G.723, G.728,
G.729

Video Codec's H.261, H.263


Data Sharing T.120
Media Transport RTP/RTCP
H.323 standard of the following

 The H.323 system is discussed in the


following three sections:

 H.323 elements
 H.323 protocol suite
 H.232 call-flows
Relationships of H.323
Components
Scope of H.323
Audio codec
G.711
Audio G.723
Equipment G.729
RTP
Video Video Codec
H.261
Equipment H.263

Data User Data


Equipment
LAN
Interface
System Control

H.245 control
System
Control Q.931
Call Setup
User
Interface RAS
Control
H.323 Elements
D-GK
H.323 H.323
Zone1 IP Zone2
Terminals GK GK Terminals

GW GW
MCU
H.324 Terminal H.320 Terminal
PSTN
(POTS) (ISDN)

Speech Only Speech Only

 Gateway (GW)—IP conversion


 Gatekeeper (GK)—Phone number and name to IP address lookup and
zone bandwidth management/proxy
 Directory Gatekeeper (D-GK)—Dial plan database of GKs
 MCU—Audio and video mixing and replication
H.323 elements
 Often referred as end points , terminals provide
point-to-point and multipoint conferencing for audio
and., optionally, video and data
 Gateways interconnect to Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN) or ISDN Networks for
H.323 endpoint networking.
 Gatekeepers provide admission control and address
translation services for terminals or gateways
 MCUs are devices that allow two or more terminals
or gateways to conference with either audio and
video sessions.
Element of H.323
networking
H.323
MCU
H.323 H.323
Terminal Terminal
WAN
RSVP Scope of
H.323 H.323 H.323
Gatekeeper Terminal

H.323
Gateway

PSTN ISDN

V.70 H.324 Speech H.320 Speech


Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal
Gateway
 The H.323 gateway reflects the
characteristics of Switched Circuit
Network (SCN) tear down on both the IP
network and SCN
 Gateways are not needed unless
interconnection with the SCN is required
 H.323 endpoints can communicate directly
over the packed network without
connecting to gateway
Elements of an H.323 Gateway

H.323 Terminal / SCN


Conversion /
MCU function Terminal
Transcoding
Function

Gateway

IP Switching
Network Circuit
Network
(SCN)
What is a Gatekeeper?
 “Centralize” the dialing plan to provide scalability
 Gatekeeper characteristics:
 Gatekeeper is optional in an H.323 network
 Logically separate from the H.323 terminals and endpoints
 Multiple GKs in a network
 Hierarchy of GKs in a network
 Gatekeeper functions:
 Address translation:
 H.323 ID and E.164 translation to an IP address
 Admission control:
 Gateway and terminal name registration
 Call Admission Control and bandwidth management
 Zone Management:
 GW ↔ GK Protocol is H.225 RAS: Registration,
Admission and Status
Gatekeeper Services
 Address translation:
Translates H.323 aliases (e.g. sliu@cisco.com) or E.164 aliases
(standard phone numbers) into IP transport addresses (e.g.
10.1.1.1 port 1720)
 Admissions control:
Authorizes access to the H.323 network
 Bandwidth control:
Manages endpoint bandwidth requirements
 Zone management:
Providesthe above functions to all terminals, gateways, and
MCUs that register to it
Directory Gatekeeper – Network
Scalability
Small Network: Gateways only Small Network: Simplified with a Gatekeeper

Medium Network: Multiple Gatekeepers Medium-Large Network: Multiple


Gatekeepers and a Directory Gatekeeper

Gateway Gatekeeper Directory Gatekeeper


H.323 Configuration Without
GK RAS
dial-peer voice 1000 pots dial-peer voice 2000 pots
destination-pattern 1000 destination-pattern 2000
port 1/1/0 port 1/1/0

1/1/0 IP QoS
1/1/0
GW 10.1.1.1 Network 10.1.1.2 GW

X1000 dial-peer voice 2000 voip dial-peer voice 1000 voip X2000
destination-pattern 2... destination-pattern 1...
session target ipv4:10.1.1.2 session target ipv4:10.1.1.1

• VoIP dial peer points directly to the destination


gateway’s IP address
• Scaling to large networks becomes administratively
burdensome
The MCU and elements
 The multipoint controller supports
conferences between three or more
endpoints in a multipoint conference
H.225 Protocol – Key Messages
Gatekeeper Discovery Location Request
• GatekeeperRequest (GRQ) • LocationRequest (LRQ)
• GatekeeperConfirm (GCF) • LocationConfirm (LCF)
• GatekeeperReject (GRJ) • LocationReject (LRJ)

Periodic

Per Call
Terminal/Gateway Registration Call Admission
• RegistrationRequest (RRQ) • AdmissionRequest (ARQ)
• RegistrationConfirm (RCF) • AdmissionConfirm (ACF)
• RegistrationReject (RRJ) • AdmissionReject (ARJ)
Terminal/Gateway Unregistration Disengage
• UnregistrationRequest (URQ) • DisengageRequest (DRQ)
• UnregistrationConfirm (UCF) • DisengageConfirm (DCF)
• UnregistrationReject (URJ) • DisengageReject (DRJ)

Resource Availability Request in Progress


• Resource Availability Indicator (RAI) • Request in Progress (RIP)
Periodic

Periodic
• Resource Availability Confirm (RAC) Status Queries
Bandwidth Change • InfoRequest (IRQ)
• Bandwidth Change Request (BRQ) • InfoRequestResponse (IRR)
• Bandwidth Change Confirm (BCF) • InfoRequestAck (IACK)
• Bandwidth Change Reject (BRJ) • InfoRequestNak (INAK)
H.323 Signaling for Call
Setup
X1001 X2001

X1002 Zone2 X2002


Zone1 IP
GW GK GK GW
X1003 X2003

RRQ RRQ
RCF RCF
ARQ
LRQ
LCF
ACF

H.225.0 Setup
ARQ
ACF

H.225.0 Connect with H.245 Capabilities

Active Call
DRQ DRQ
DCF DCF
TCP/UDP in the H.323 Call
Setup
H.323 H.323
Gateway Gateway
PSTN / Private IP QoS PSTN / Private
Voice Network Voice

Setup
H.225 (TCP)
POTS/PSTN Call Set-up: Ringing, Answer... Q.931 derived Call-Setup
Signaling
Connect

Capabilities Exchange
H.245 (TCP)
Open Logical Channel • Capabilities negotiation
• V2 leverages H.225
Open Logical Channel Acknowledge messages for transport
of IEs

RTP Stream
Bearer or
Media
RTP Stream Media (UDP)
RTCP Stream
RAS Gatekeeper Discovery
Gatekeeper

GRQ (Multicast)
GRQ (Unicast)
GCF GCF

Gateway B
Gateway A
RAS Gatekeeper Discovery
 GRQ (Gatekeeper Request)
 Message send by endpoint to gatekeeper
 GCF (Gatekeeper Confirm)
 Reply from gatekeeper to endpoint indicating the
transport address of the gatekeeper RAS channel.
 GRJ (Gatekeeper Reject)
 Reply from gatekeeper to endpoint rejecting the
endpoint’s request for registration. Usually due to
gateway or gatekeeper configuration error
RAS Registration and
Unregistration
Gatekeeper

RRQ
RRQ
RCF
RCF

Gateway B
Gateway A
RAS Signaling
 Registration .
 Registration request (RRQ)
 sent from an endpoints to the gatekeeper RAS channel address
 Registration Confirm (RCF)
 sent by the gatekeeper and confirms and endpoint registration.
 Registration Reject (RRJ)
 Sent by the gatekeeper and rejects and endpoint registration.
 Unregister Request (URQ)
 Sent from and endpoint or gatekeeper to confirm and
unregistration.
 Unregister Confirm (UCF)
 Sent from the endpoint or gatekeeper to confirm and
unregistration.
 Unregister Reject (URJ)
 Indicates that the endpoints was not pre-registered with the
gatekeeper.
RAS End Point location
 LRQ—Send to request the endpoint or gatekeeper
contact information for one or more E.164.
 LCF—Sent by the gatekeeper and contains the call
signaling channel or RAS channel address of itself or
the requested endpoint. It uses its own address
when GKRCS is used and the requested endpoint’s
address Directed Endpoints Call Signaling is used.
 Location Reject –Sent by gatekeepers that receive
an LRQ for which the requested endpoint is not
registered or has unavailable resources.
RAS Admissions
 ARQ-an attempt by an endpoint to
initiate a call.
 ACF-An authorization by the
gatekeeper to admit the call.
 ARJ- Denies the endpoint’s request to
gain access to the network for this
particular call
RAS Status Information
 Information Request –Sent from the gatekeeper to the
endpoint requesting status.
 Information Request Response—Sent from the endpoint
to the gatekeeper in response to and IRQ. This
message also is sent from and endpoint if the
gatekeeper requests periodic status updates.
 Status Enquiry—Sent outside the RAS channel on the
call signaling channel. An endpoint or gatekeeper can
send status Enquiry message to another endpoint to
verify call state. Gatekeepers typically use these
messages to verify whether calls are still active
RAS Bandwidth Control
 BRQ-- Sent by and endpoint to the gatekeeper
requesting and increase or decrease it call
bandwidth.
 BCF-- Sent by the gatekeeper confirming
acceptance of the bandwidth change request.
 BRJ-- Sent by the gatekeeper rejecting the
bandwidth change request (send if the
requested bandwidth is not available).
Intra-Zone Call Setup
GK1

5
2 6
3 RRQ

RCF
4
1 7
0

Terminal 8
Terminal B
415-557-1111 GWB
GWA 408-667-1111
Intra-Zone Call Setup
1) Terminal A dials the phone number 408-667-1111 for Terminal B.
2) GWA sends GK1 an ARQ, asking permissions to call Terminal B.
3) GK1 does a look-up and finds Terminal B registered; returns an ACF with
the IP address of GWB.
4) GWA sends a Q.931 Call-setup to GWB with Terminal B’s phone number.
5) GWB sends GK1 an ARQ, asking permission to answer GWA’s call.
6) GK1 returns an ACF with IP address of GWA.
7) GWB sets up a POTS call to Terminal B at 408-667-7777.
8) When Terminal B answers, GWB sends Q.931 Connect to GWA.
9) GW sends IRR to GK after call is setup.
Inter-Zone Call Setup
GK1 GK2
3

3
7
2 5 8

1 6 9
0

Terminal 10
Terminal B
415-557-1111 GWB 408-667-1111
GWA
Inter-Zone Call Setup
1) Terminal A dials the phone number 408-667-1111 for Terminal B.
2) GWA sends GK1 an ARQ, asking permissions to call Terminal B.
3) GK1 does a lookup and does NOT find Terminal B registered; GK1
does a prefix look-up and finds a match with GK2; GK1 sends an LRQ
GK2, and RIP (Request in Progress) to GWA.
4) GK2 does a look-up and finds Terminal B registered; returns an LCF
with the IP address of GWB.
5) GK1 returns an ACF with the IP address of GWB.
6) GWA sends a Q.931 Call-Setup to GWB with Terminal B’s phone
number.
7) GWB sends GK2 an ARQ, asking permission to answer GWA’s call.
8) GK2 returns an ACF with IP address of GWA.
9) GWB sets a POTS call to Terminal B at 408-667-1111.
10)When Terminal B answers, GWB sends Q.931 Connect to GWA.
Inter-Zone Call Setup with a
directory Gatekeeper
Dir-GK

3 4

GK1 GK2

5
3
8
2 6 9

1 7
0
10

Terminal 11
GWA GWB Terminal B
415-557-1111 408-667-1111
Inter-Zone Call Setup with a
directory Gatekeeper
1) Terminal A dials the phone number 408-667-1111 for Terminal B.
2) GWA sends GK1 an ARQ, asking permission to call Terminal B.
3) GK1 does a look-up and does NOT find Terminal B registers; GK1 does
a prefix look-up and finds a wildcard match with Dir-Gk; GK1 sends
LRQ to Dir-GK, and RIP to GWA.
4) Dir-GK does a prefix look-up and finds GK2; Forwards the LRQ to
GK2.
5) GK2 does a look-up and finds Terminal B registered; returns an LCF
with the IP address of GWB.
6) GK1 returns an ACF with the IP address of GWB.
7) GWA sends a Q.931 Call-Setup to GWB with Terminal B’s phone
number.
8) GWB sends GK2 an ARQ, asking permission to answer GWA’s call.
9) GK2 returns an ACF with IP address of GWA.
10)GWB sets a POTS call to Terminal B at 408-667-1111.
11)When Terminal B answers, GWB sends Q.931 Connect to GWA.