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# Optimal Switching Waveform with near

## Zero-Voltage and Zero-Current turn-on

Designing Induction Cooktop Magnetic Circuit
INDUCTION COOKTOP COIL DESIGN

P = Power delivered by induction coil to cooktop.
f
mains
= mains frequency
f
sw
= Switching frequency
L = Inductance of induction coil
V
m
= Peak supply voltage
N = f
sw
/f
mains
Nos. of pulses in one mains cycle
For P = 2000W and f
sw
= 20KHz; L = 165uH.
so I
m
= 12.36Amps, I
rms
= 8.71Amps and
P= V
rms
*I
rms
=230*8.71 = 2000W
sw
m
m
Lf
V
I
8

W
L
MMF Diagram
Flux Pattern
Ferrite Layout
The flux density is maximum at the starting
edge of ferrite core that is near centre of coil
and linearly reduces to zero at the outer edge.
Assuming total flux linking through the
ferrite core where average flux density is
B
m
/2, we get total flux =(B
m
WLP/2), where
P is no of ferrite bars and
W = ? M
L = ? M
L
g
= ? M
P = 6
L
C
= ? uH
From the Wheelers formula (Wheeler, 1928), inductance of the flat spiral coil as
shown in Fig. 5.4 with out feromagnet is obtained using the expression
mentioned below.

where, N = total number of turns,
R = mean radius of the spiral coil (in inches) = 0 0.5(R
0
- c) ,
W = depth of the spiral coil (in inches)
o
- c)

Calculate coil inductance of Prestige Cooktop without pot and measure with meter
Calculate coil inductance of Prestige Cooktop
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ANALYSIS OF INDUCTION COOKER BY FINITE ELEMENT
SOFTWARE SUCH AS COMSOL/ANSOFT
Model of induction cooker is established by American finite element electromagnetic field
computation software Ansoft. The model is 2D and axis symmetric. By numerical calculation,
the distribution of eddy current induced in the pan and the distribution of magnetic field
intensity are as shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF INDUCTION COOKER
The coupling between the coil and the pan is modeled as the series connection of an inductor and a resistor,
based on the transformer analogy. Fig. 4 shows the equivalent circuit of induction cooker. The coil of induction
cooker is equivalent to the source side of transformer, and the pan is equivalent to the vice side of transformer.
In Fig. 3(a), R1 is resistance of the coil, L1 is inductance of the coil, R2 is resistance of the pan, L2 is
inductance of the pan, M is mutual inductance between the pan and the coil.
The equivalent circuit from the power source end looked is showed in Fig. 3(b). Z11 is impedance of
the coil, Z12 is the pan's impedance converted into to the source side, their expressions are as
follows: Z11 = R1 + L1, Z12 = R12+jL12, R12 =
2
M
2
R
2
/(R
2
2
+X
2
2
), X12 =
2
M
2
X
2
/(R
2
2
+X
2
2
).
Although the voltage of power source will be different against the pan's parameters, in the analysis and
calculation of power, the source should be regarded as a constant voltage source or a voltage source with
small interface resistance and not as constant current source. That is because the current has a very big
change along with the pan's parameter and the operating frequency. By the analysis of the circuit, we can
see that at a certain voltage U, P=U
2
R/(R
2
+X
2
), Q=U
2
X/(R
2
+X
2
), where, R=R11+R12, X=X11+X12,
P is the total active power and Q is the total reactive power.
P
eddy
= U
2
R
12
=(R
2
+ X
2
), eff = R12=(R12 + R1), where P
eddy
is power of the pan, eff is efficiency.
Table 1 is about the results along with the change of frequency. From Table 1, we can
see that:
(1) efficiency has a maximum value when the frequency is about 28 kHz, but the change
is very small, only differs 0.2% between 15 kHz and 40 kHz,
(2) when voltage is a constant, Peddy and Q reduce monotonously and quickly.
Table 2 is about the results along with the change of pan's permeability. When conductivity
is decided as 1.389e6, permeability is changed. Permeability has a direct impact on the
value of inductance and the reactance. In the following table permeability is relative
permeability. From Table 2, we can see that:
(1) efficiency has a maximum value when permeability is about 800, and the maximum
efficiency and minimum efficiency has a difference about 1%.
(2) P
eddy
and Q reduce monotonously and quickly along with the increase of permeability.
Table 3 is about the results along with the change of pan's conductivity. The relative
permeability is decided as 1 (except the case of iron pan with relative permeability
800 noted in the table 3). From Table 3, we can see that:
(1)efficiency has a maximum value when conductivity is about 500000, and has a
obvious variation along with the change of conductivity, Stainless steel pan's
efficiency is high above 30% than aluminium pan's, and lower 0.7% than iron
pan's,
(2) power also has a maximum value when conductivity is about 5e5 S/m.
POWER HiTESTER 3193-10
Mumbai Office
HIOKI INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED
Malad (W), Mumbai 400 064 (Mah.)
TEL +91-22-65346468
Email: mumbai@hioki.in
YAKOGAWA MIXED SIGNAL OSCILLOSCOPES DLM2024
DLM2000 Series Lineup
Item Model
DLM2022
710105
DLM2032
710115
DLM2052
710125
DLM2024
710110
DLM2034
710120
DLM2054
710130
channels
2 4*
Logic input - 8bit
Maximum sampling
rate
2.5 GS/s (interleave ON)
Frequency
Characteristics
200 MHz 350 MHz 500 MHz 200 MHz 350 MHz 500 MHz
Maximum Record
Length
62.5 Mpoints (Single measurement,
interleave ON)
250 Mpoints (Single measurement, memory
length: /M3, interleave ON)

Continuous
Measurement
Single-Shot Measurement
2 ch, 4 ch same
With 4 ch (With 2ch
for DLM20x2)
With 2 ch (With 1ch
for DLM20x2)
/M1, /M1S memory
option
(standard)
6.25 Mpoints 25 Mpoints 62.5 Mpoints
/M2 memory
option
12.5 Mpoints 62.5 Mpoints 125 Mpoints
/M3 memory
option
25 Mpoints 125 Mpoints 250 Mpoints
Largest long memory within the class
Note: The /M1, /M2, /M3 memory expansion options are only available on 4ch models.
The /M1S option is only available on 2ch models.
Western Regional Office (Mumbai)
Mumbai 400 059, India
Phone: (91)-22-67021241 / 67021242
Fax: (91)-22-67021243
Fluke 41B Power Meter
Measurement Accuracy
Voltage Range and
Resolution:
5.0 V t o 600 V rms (AC+DC); 5.0 V t o 933 V peak
Accuracy: rms: (0.5 %+ 2 digit s); Peak or DC: (2 %+ 3 digit s) (Add
2 digit s if < 15 V rms)
Current (1mV/ A) Isolated
input
Range and
Resolution:
1.00 A t o 1000 A rms (AC+DC); 1.0 A t o 2000 A peak
Accuracy: rms: (0.5%+ 3 digit s)+probe specs; Peak or DC: (2 %+ 4
digit s) + probe specs
Watts/ Volt-Amps (1mV/ A)
isolated input
Range and Resolution: 0.0W(VA) t o 600 kW(kVA) average;
0.0W(VA) t o 2000 kW(kVA) peak
Accuracy: AC+DC: (1 %+ 4 digit s) + probe specs
Harmonics (harmonic
level >5% using Smooth
20)
Volts: : Fundament al t o 13t h (2 %+2 digit s);
At 31st (8 %+2 digit s);
Amperes or Watts: Fundament al t o 13t h (3 %+ 3 digit s) + probe specs;
At 31st (8 %+ 3 digit s) + probe specs
Frequency Range and Resolution: 6.0 Hz t o 99.9 Hz
Accuracy: 0.3 Hz
Input Bandwidth

DC, 6 Hz t o 2.1 kHz
Crest Factor (CF) Range and Resolution: 6.0 Hz t o 99.9 Hz
Accuracy : 0.3 Hz
Power Factor (PF) Range and Resolution: 0.00 t o 1.00
Accuracy: 0.02
Displacement Power
Factor (DPF)
Range and Resolution: 0.00 t o 1.00
Accuracy: 0.04 t o 0.03 (0.30 t o 0.89) 0.02 (0.90 t o 1.00)
Phase Range and Resolution: -179 t o 180
Accuracy (Fundamental): 2 + probe specs
K-Factor (KF) Range and Resolution 1.0 t o 30.00
Accuracy 10%
% THD-F Range and Resolution: 0.00 %t o 799.9 %
Accuracy: (0.03 Reading + 2.0 %)
% THD-R Range and Resolution: 0.0 %t o 99.9 %
Accuracy: (0.03 Reading + 2.0 %)

General Specifications
Minimum Input Levels

5 V rms or 1 A rms
Battery Life

4 alkaline "C" cells ANSI/ NEDA-14A, IEC-LR14 (suppl ied) 48 hours t ypical
(cont inuous)
Shock & Vibration

Per MIL-T-28800, Class 3
Case

Drip-Proof and Dust -Proof per IEC, IP 52
Size

234 mm L x 100 mm W x 64 mm D (9.2" L x 3.9" W x 2.5" D)
Weight

0.9 kg (2.0 lb.)
Warranty

One Year Warrant y

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