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Khairul Nizar Ismail

EAT 257
7 March 2013
Find R and U values for building compenent
Select appropriate indoor and outdoor design
Calculate room and building heat transfer losses
Determine room and building heating loads

The Energy Equation (First Law of
The first Law of Themodynamics is a principle that
may be stated in various ways for instance energy can
neither be created nor destroyed or there is
conservation of energy in nature
This principle is used extensively in the HVAC
industry especially when stated as an energy balance :
The change in total energy in a system equals the
energy added to the system minus the energy removed
from the system

Energy Equation
The energy balance can be expressed as an equation,
called the Energy Equation:
Ech = Ein - Eout
Ech = Change in stored energy
Ein = Energy added (entering) the system
Eout = Energy removed from (leaving) the system
Example 1
A hot water heating convector in a office is supplying
4000 BTU/hr of heat. Heat is being transferred from
air to the outdoors at rate of 6500 BTU/hr. What will
happen in the room? What size electric heater should
the office temporarily use to solve the emergency?
Solution 1
Ech = Ein Eout
Ech = 4000 BTU/hr 6500 BTU/hr
Ech = - 2500 BTU/hr

The negative sign means the room air energy is
The room temperature will be dropped
A solution is to install an electric heater that will make
up the heat loss of 2500 BTU/hr
Cont Solution 1
The capacity of an electric heater is nomarlly
expressed in watts (W) or kilowatts (KW) rather then
The heater should therefore have the following
3410 BTU/hr = 1000 watts
2500 BTU/hr x 1000 watts = 733 watts
3410 BTU/hr
Example 2
A classroom has 1000 watts of lighting and some small
motors with a total output of 10 HP. All of the energy
in the lighting and from the motors is converted into
heat. What is the increase in enthalpy of the classroom
air from the sources?
Solution 2
The energy added to the classroom air will increse its
Applying the Energy Equation & converting all units to
Ech = Ein Eout
Ech = 1000 watts x 3.41 BTU/hr + 10 HP x 2545 BTU/hr - 0
1 watts 1 HP
Ech = 28, 860 BTU/hr
Conduction- is the form of heat transfer through a
body that occurs without any movement of the body, it
is result of molecular or electron action
Convection- is the form of heat transfer that results
from gross movement of liquids or gases
Thermal Radiation- is the form of heat transfer that
occurs between two separated bodies as a result of a
means called electromagnetic radiation, sometimes
called wave radiation
Heat Conduction
Key Question:
How does heat pass
through different
Heat Transfer
The science of how heat flows is called heat transfer.
There are three ways heat transfer works: conduction,
convection, and radiation.
Heat flow depends on the temperature difference.
Thermal Equilibrium
Two bodies are in thermal
equilibrium with each other
when they have the same
In nature, heat always flows
from hot to cold until
thermal equilibrium is
Heat Conduction
Conduction is the transfer of heat through materials
by the direct contact of matter.
Dense metals like copper and aluminum are very good
thermal conductors.
Heat Conduction
A thermal insulator is a material that conducts heat
Heat flows very slowly through the plastic so that the
temperature of your hand does not rise very much.
Heat Conduction
Styrofoam gets its
insulating ability by
trapping spaces of air
in bubbles.
Solids usually are better
heat conductors than
liquids, and liquids are
better conductors than
Heat Conduction
The ability to conduct heat
often depends more on the
structure of a material than
on the material itself.
Solid glass is a thermal
conductor when it is
formed into a beaker or
When glass is spun into
fine fibers, the trapped air
makes a thermal insulator.
Thermal Conductivity
The thermal conductivity of a material describes how
well the material conducts heat.
Heat conduction in
solids and liquids
works by transferring
energy through bonds
between atoms or
There are three ways heat transfer
works: conduction, convection,
and radiation
Rate of Heat Transfer
The rate at which heat is conducted through any
material depends on three factors:
1) The temperature difference across which the heat
2) The area of the surface through which heat is flowing
3)The thermal resistance (R) of the material to heat
Heat transfer equation
Q = 1 x A x TD

Q = heat tranfer rate (BTU/hr)
R = thermal resistance of material
A = surface area through which heat flow
TD = temperature difference across heat flow
Example 3
Determine the heat transmission coefficient for
building wall section:
Face brick : 0.44
Concrete : 1.11
Insulation : 11.0
Drywall : 0.32

Solution 3
U-Factor = 1/R

U-factor = 1/ 0.44+1.11+11.0+0.32

U-factor = 1/12.87

U-factor = 0.077 BTU/h/sq ft/F

Example 4
Determine the heat loss through the wall described in
Example 3. The wall is 30 feet wide by 12 feet high. The
heating design indoor air is 70 F and heating design
outdoor air is 5 F
Solution 4
Q = U x A x T
Q = 0.077 BTU/hr/sq ft/F x 360 sq ft x 65 F
Q = 1801.8 BTU/hr

The heat loss through the wall 1801.8 BTU/hr
Load calculator