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Dr Akin Moses

Chief Consultant & Head,


Family Medicine,
National Hospital Abuja.
What is HIV/AIDS?

 HIV, a virus.

 HIV=Human Immunodeficiency Virus

 HIV and human immune cells

 HIV positive
HIV/AIDS

 AIDS is a medical condition

 AIDS=Acquired Immunodeficiency
Syndrome
Why is HIV dangerous?

 Attacks the immune system itself.

 Replicates and integrates into host’s


genome.

 Evasion by mutation.
HIV/AIDS dynamics

 Time between HIV infection and AIDS

 AIDS: depleted immune cells below


the standard

 AIDS:development of opportunistic
infections
Patterns of HIV Disease
Progression

Typical Progressors 7-10 years


90 %

HIV <5 %
Infection Rapid Progressors <3 years

<10 % Long-term
Non-progressors >10-15 yr
Normal, Stable CD4
When & where was HIV
discovered?
 1st reported in the USA in early
1980’s

 Men that have sex with men

 Earliest evidence was in Zaire,Congo


in 1959
Myths about HIV/AIDS

 1.Relatship btw HIV & AIDS


 HIV=AIDS=DEATH

 HIV does not cause AIDS


Myths

 2.HIV/AIDS treatment
 HIV is curable

 Virgin cleansing.
Myths

• 3. HIV Infection
• HIV cannot be transmitted via oral sex

• HIV is transmitted by mosquitoes

• Say a prayer b4 sex=No HIV

• Wash/shower after sex=No HIV


Myths

 4.History of HIV/AIDS
 HIV from outer space

 HIV was made for biological weapon

 African monkeys & American


women(SIV is similar to HIV)
Myths

 5.AIDS Denial
 There is no AIDS in Africa

 American Invention to discourage


Sex(AIDS)
Epidemiology &
Statistics
Worldwide:
 Over 22 million people have died
from AIDS.
 Over 42 million people are living with
HIV/AIDS, and 74 percent of these
infected people live in sub-Saharan
Africa.
 Over 19 million women are living
with HIV/AIDS.
Stats

 By the year 2010, five countries


(Ethiopia, Nigeria, China, India, and
Russia) with 40 percent of the
world's population will add 50 to 75
million infected people to the
worldwide pool of HIV disease
Stats

 There are 14,000 new infections


every day (95 percent in developing
countries). HIV/AIDS is a "disease of
young people" with half of the 5
million new infections each year
occurring among people ages 15 to
24
Stats

 The UN estimates that, currently,


there are 14 million AIDS orphans
and that by 2010 there will be 25
million.

 In Nigeria, Benue State has the


highest incidence.
How is HIV transmitted?

 Unprotected sexual intercourse with


an infected person
 Contact with infected blood
 Use of infected blood products
 Needle sharing,Needle stick accident
 Mother to child transmission(MTCT)
Ways HIV is not
transmitted
 Sharing cutleries and cups
 Touching,hugging and shaking hands
 Eating food prepared by someone
with HIV
 Toilet seats,insect bites
 Social kiss Vs French kiss
Recognising symptoms &
signs
 1.Early symptoms:Flu-like illness

 Appear within weeks to months

 Very infectious stage


Symptoms & Signs

 2.Later symptoms:8-10yrs
 Lack of energy(fatigue)
 Weight loss(>10% of normal body
weight)
 Persistent skin rashes
 Recurrent diarrhoeal stools
 Oral thrush
Herpes Zoster
Pruritic skin lesions
Seborrheic dermatitis
CHRONIC HERPES SIMPLEX
CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
Histoplasma
Mycosis Fungoides
 There are over 25 AIDS defining
conditions
 None is an absolute pointer to the
diagnosis of AIDS
 High index of suspicion
How is HIV dignosed?

 Screening tests:ELISA

 Confirmatory:Western blot

 Window period:1-6 months,PCR


Role of awareness
campaigns
 Overview:successful e.g.
 Onyeka onwenu & Sunny Ade adverts:if u
love me,u go wait for me.
 Femi Kuti:AIDS no dey show for face
 Zip up
 Banks can sponsor awareness campaigns
in their immediate locality(not expensive)
How do I go about awareness
campaign?
 Education
 Make condoms freely accessible
 Promote openness to break stigma &
silence
 Encourage testing for everyone
 Make pple understand their rights &
treatment options
Risk & High Risk groups

 Risk group:Everyone
 High risk group:
 Commercial sex workers
 Hospital workers
 Illicit drug users(needle sharing)
 Long distance drivers
 Pple with other STIs
 Business people.
Awareness & VCT

 Location of Servises:
 PEPFAR Clinic,National Hospital
Abuja
 University of Abuja teaching Hospital
 Others:General
Hospitals,NGOs,Private hospitals &
Laboratories may charge a fee.
Stigmatization & Workplace
policy
 Self stigmatization:Deny diagnosis
and access to treatment.

 Family stigmatization.

 Workplace stigmatization.
Workplace Policy

 FGN in 2007 approved a national


workplace policy on HIV/AIDS.

 Aim is to Tackle
discrimination,stigmatization &
exclusivity,protect the rights of job
seekers and employment prospects.
Workplace policy

 Stipulates that
 1.No obligation will be placed on an
employee to reveal his/her HIV status to
the employer.
 2.Health insurance coverage would be
available to employees regardless of HIV
status.
 3.That HIV screening would not be
required of job applicants or persons in
employment.
How do you prevent HIV
progression to AIDS
 Regular clinic & laboratory attendance
 Healthy lifestyle:Exercise,good
nutrition,cessation of smoking,alcohol
 Practise safer sex
 Drugs if required
 Attend support group & seek information
 Support those infected & affected.
General Law of
prevention
 A,B,C(sexual transmission)
 Adequate blood screening b4
transfusion
 PMTCT program
 Avoid sharing
needles,sharps,Tattooing
 No effective vaccine.
Post-exposure
Prophylaxis:0-72hrs
 Rape
 Needle Stick injuries
 Involves the use of HAART to prevent
infection.
Conclusion

 HIV is not =AIDS


 No available cure as of today.
 HIV can be prevented & managed
 Importance of awareness campaigns
can not be overemphasized:Being
aware solves half of the problem.
 Everyone should be tested.
 Avoid employer discrimination
 We all can help curb this pandemic
For your patience.