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UNIT II

Systems of Limits and Fits


Limit Gauges
Unit II - Syllabus
Systems of Limits and Fits
Introduction, normal size, tolerance limits, deviations,
allowance, fits and their types
Unilateral and bilateral system
Hole and Shaft based systems
Interchangeability and Selective Assembly
Indian Standard Institution system, British Standard
System, International standard system for Plain and
Screwed work
Limit Gauges
Taylors principle Design of Go and No Go gauges
Plug, Ring, Snap, Gap, Taper, Profile and Position gauges

Gauges
Basic dimension: exact size of part from which all limiting
variations made
Limits: maximum and minimum dimensions
Tolerance: permissible variation of part
unilateral: one direction only
Bilateral: both plus and minus (two directions)
SLIP GAUGES
A gauge block (also known as a gage block, Johansson gauge, slip gauge, or Jo
block) - a precision ground and lapped length measuring End Standard.

It is used mainly as a reference for the setting of measuring equipment used in
machine shops, such as micrometers, sine bars, and dial indicators (when used in an
inspection role).
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Limit gauges
Richard Robers,1789-1864, in UK, used a plug collar gage to inspect a
dimension. In 1857, Joseph Whiteworth demonstrated the use of internal and
external gagues for a shaft-based limit system. In 1905, Willium Taylor
explained the concept of relationship between two processes:
1. Checking specific dimension of a part and
2. Checking different elements (geometric features) of dimension.
In an Interchangeable assembly, where close tolerance limits are imposed, limit
gauges are used to measure specific dimension of a part during inspection.
Limit Gauges ensure/confirms whether the part produced being inspected lies
within specified limits or not; however they are not meant for measuring exact
size. The function of limit gauges is to determine whether the actual
dimensions of the work are within or outside the specified limits.

These are also called go and no go gauges. These are made to the limit
sizes of the work to be measured.
Taylors principle
It states that the GO gage should always be designed to check the
maximum metal condition (MMC) of as many dimensions as possible
in the same limit gauge, where as a NO GO / NOT GO gauge to cover
the minimum metal condition of one dimension only.

This is the main principle which gives the base to calculate the dimensions of
the GO and NOGO gauges.


Fig . GO and NO-GO Plug gauge for checking material limits of the hole.
Gauge Design
Every gauge is a replica of the part which it inspects for dimension and geometrical limits.
1. Taylors Principle Guideline for gauge design
a. Form of GO should exactly coincide with the form (shape and size Geometrically) of a
part produced.
b. GO end of gauge enables to inspect a part both for dimensional and geometrical limits
imposed with maximum material condition.
c. NO GO designed for verifying limit imposed on one dimension (minimum metal
condition).

Fig. Plug gauge
Fig. Snap gauge
Gauge Design - Taylors principle
Fig. Plug gauge to check hole dimension
Note:
The length of GO plug gauge should be at least1.5 times the diameter of the
hole in order to check straightness and circularity of bore in any given section
ensuring bore alignability, and length of NO GO is kept smaller than GO gauge
and red mark is shown.
Gauge Design
2. Limit Gauge Tolerance (a) Manufacturing / Gauge makers / Gauge Tolerance (b) Wear
Tolerance
a. Gauge Tolerance is provided in anticipation of imperfection in the workmanship of the
gauge maker. Limit gauges are usually provided with the gauge tolerance of 10% of work
tolerance for reference (on either side totally 20%), master gages and 5% of work
tolerance for a inspection gauge as a generally accepted limit. This indicates the limit
gauge is 10 times more accurate than the tolerances they are going to control.
b. Wear Tolerance / Allowance Measuring surfaces wears due to repeated use resulting
dimension change in gauge (i.e. change in initial condition/dimension of a gauge). It is
desired to increase the service life of a gauge. It must be applied to a Go gauge and
usually taken as 10% gage tolerance. It is applied in the direction opposite to wear, i.e. in
case of a plug gage wear allowance is added while subtracted for a ring/snap gauges.

PS: Bilateral for Inspection gauge to
reduce accepting defective parts

Gauge Design
A gauge can be workshop or inspection or general purpose gauge. Following guidelines are used
to allocate Gage tolerance and wear tolerance:
Component / Part / Work produced in a company should be accepted by the inspection
department (i.e. which should lie in the prescribed limit size)
Component / Part / Work produced should be rejected in case if it lies outside the
prescribed limits.
To implement above guidelines in general two types of gauges are employed in practice.
Workshop gauge Used during manufacacturing
Inspection gauge Used for final inspection.
In case of Master gauge (Used for setting comparator instruments ), the gauge tolerances are
distributed bilaterally.
Gauge Design
3. Material considerations Gauges are made from High carbon
and alloy steels and by a special process. Gauge should possess
high degree of wear resistance to ensure stable size and shape for
longer period (tool life). Gage should be corrosion resistant and
have low coefficient of thermal expansion.
Gauges - Classification
Plain gauge (Used to check plain, i.e. unthreaded holes and shafts) in following ways
According to type
Standard gauge - exact copy of the part it is inspected, which is in general difficult to
manufacture.
Limit gauges Widely used in industries, which are made to the limits of the
dimensions of the part to be inspected as GO and NO GO.
According to purpose
Workshop or working gauge used by operator to check the dimensions, so as to keep
the size of the part near the centre of limit of tolerance.
Inspection gauge Used by inspector to accept manufactured part when finished,
made with slightly larger tolerance, so as to accept parts nearer the tolerance limit.
Purchase Inspection gauge Used by purchaser for those parts produced by other
plants or outside supplier, limits are equal to the working gauge.
Reference or Master gauge used for checking the size and condition of gauges used
in the shop floor.

According to form of tested surface
Plug gauge to inspect holes
Snap, Gap or Ring gauge used to inspect shafts.
According to desine
single limit / double limit
Single ended / double ended
Fixed / Adjustable
Integral end / Renewable end
Solid end / Hollow end

Cylindrical Plug Gauges
Plug Gauges

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Cylindrical Plug gauge In Inspection
Taper Plug Gauges
Used to check size of hole and taper accuracy
Made with standard or special tapers
Some have "go" and "no-go" rings scribed
gauge fits into hole between two rings means within required tolerance
Plain Ring Gauges
Used to check outside diameter of pieces
Ground and lapped internally to desired size
Size stamped on side of gauge
Outside diameter knurled and "no-go" end identified by annular groove on knurled surface
Precautions and procedures similar to those outlined for a plug gauge
Thread Plug Gauges
Used for checking internal threads of the "go" and "no-go" variety
Based on same principle as cylindrical plug gauges
"go" end (longer end)
Should be turned in flush to bottom of hole
"no-go" end
Should just start into hole and become snug before third thread enters
Thread Ring Gauges
Contour Gauge
A component , B- the gauge
Snap Gauges
One of most common types of comparative measuring instruments
Faster to use than micrometers
Limited in their application
Used to check diameters within certain limits by comparing part size to preset dimension of
snap gauge
Have C-shaped frame with adjustable gauging anvils or rolls set to "go" and
"no-go" limits
of the part
Several styles
Snap Gauges
A Double end gauge B- Single end gauge c- Moulded snap gauge D - Moulded snap
gauge with ribs
FEELER GAUGE
A feeler gauge (also
known as a thickness
gauge) is an accurately
manufactured strip of
metal that is used to
determine the gap or
clearance between two
components.
FEELER GAUGE
A feeler gauge can be
used to check the
following:
Piston ring gap
Piston ring side
clearance
Connecting rod side
clearance
Radius Gauge
A radius gauge is a tool used to measure the radius of an object.

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Thread Pitch Gauge
It used to quickly determine the pitch of various threads by matching the teeth on the leaves with
teeth on the work.
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Position Gauge

References
A T.B. Of Production Enginerring, By P. C. Sharma
Metrology & Measurement By Bewoor