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11 (de) vizualizări18 paginiaircraft stability lecture by iaf instructor

Aug 26, 2014

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aircraft stability lecture by iaf instructor

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aircraft stability lecture by iaf instructor

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BY

GP CAPT NC CHATTOPADHYAY

FAMOUS QUOTES

True stability results when presumed

order and presumed disorder are

balanced. A truly stable system expects

the unexpected, is prepared to be

disrupted, waits to be transformed.

Tom Robbins quotes (American Novelist. b.1936)

COURSE STRUCTURE

03 CR

TWO PARTS [ SEC-A, B]

TOTAL 300 MARKS [105 X 2 (SEC-A & B)

+ 60 (03/04 CTs) +15 + 15 = 300]

NO SESSIONAL

COURSE STRUCTURE [ SEC-A]

INTRO TO STABILITY

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS & RECAP

AERODYNAMICS

NOTATIONS , CONVENTIONS

UNSTEADY MOTIONS & EQUATIONS

MEAN AERODYNAMIC CENTRE

STATIC VS DYNAMIC STABILITY, STABILITY

DERIVATIVES

HIGH TECH CONTROLS [SAS, AFCS,

EFCS,FBL]

SPACE VEHICLE CONTROL

COURSE STRUCTURE [ SEC-B]

LONGITUDINAL STABILITY &

CONTROL

EFFECTS OF WING, BODY, TAIL AND

OTHER SURFACES

LATERAL STABILITY AND CONTROL

DIRECTIONAL STABILITY AND

CONTROL

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF

STABILITY AND CONTROL

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

MECHANICS OF FLIGHT- KERMODE [T]

AERODYNAMICS- CLANCY [ T]

AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE STABILITY &

CONTROL- PERKIN & HAGE [R]

DYNAMICS OF FLIGHT ETKIN & REID [R]

AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT AND

MISSILE- BLAKELOCK [R]

FLIGHT STABILITY AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL-

NELSON [R]

NOTE: [T]- TEXT, [R]- REFERENCE

FAMOUS QUOTES

A thing is right when it tends to preserve

the integrity, stability and beauty of the

biotic community. It is wrong when it tends

otherwise.

Aldo Leopold AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTALIST

STABILITY FUNDA

Simply stated, stability and control is the science behind

keeping the aircraft pointed in a desired direction.

Whereas performance analysis sums the forces on an

aircraft, stability and control analysis requires summing the

moments acting on it due to surface pressure and shear stress

distributions, engine thrust, etc., and ensuring those moments

sum to zero when the aircraft is oriented as desired.

Stability analysis also deals with the changes in moments on

the aircraft when it is disturbed from equilibrium, the condition

when all forces and moments on it sum to zero. An aircraft

which tends to drift away from its desired equilibrium condition,

or which oscillates wildly about the equilibrium condition, is

said to lack sufficient stability

CONTROL FUNDA

Control analysis determines how the aircraft

should be designed so that sufficient control

authority (sufficiently large moments generated

when controls are used) is available to allow the

aircraft to fly all maneuvers and at all speeds

required by the design specifications.

Good stability and control characteristics are as

essential to the success of an aircraft as are good

lift, drag, and propulsion characteristics.

THE LANGUAGE

The science of stability and control is complex, and only an

orderly, step-by-step approach to the problem will yield

sufficient understanding and acceptable results.

This process must begin by defining quite a number of axes,

angles, forces, moments, displacements, and rotations.

As much as possible, these definitions will be consistent with

those used in aerodynamic and performance analysis, but

occasionally the complexity and unique requirements of stability

and control problems dictate that less intuitive definitions and

reference points be used.

Coordinate System

One of the least intuitive elements of stability and

control analysis is the coordinate system

Conventionally, the vertical (z) axis is defined as

positive downward! The reason for this choice is a

desire to have consistent and convenient definitions

for positive moments

The moment about the aerodynamic center of an

airfoil or wing as being positive in a nose-up direction,

the lateral (span wise) axis of the aircraft coordinate

system is positive in the direction from the right wing

root to the right wing tip

Coordinate System

The aircrafts longitudinal axis (down its centerline) is chosen

parallel to and usually coincident with its aircraft reference line

but positive toward the aircrafts nose so that a moment

tending to raise the left wing and lower the right wing is positive

This axis is chosen as the x axis to be consistent with

performance analysis. Making x positive toward the front

allows the aircrafts thrust and velocity to be taken as positive

quantities

Since a rotation about the longitudinal axis to the right or

clockwise is positive, for consistency it is desired that a moment

or rotation about the aircrafts vertical axis such that the nose

moves to the right be considered positive. This requires that

the vertical axis be positive downward so that the right-hand

rule is satisfied

Degrees of Freedom

The aircraft has six degrees of freedom, six

ways it can move.

It has three degrees of freedom in translation

(linear motion) which are orthogonal to each

other. Components of its velocity along the x,

y, and z axes are labeled u, v, and w. Lower

case is used to avoid confusion with V , which

typically has both u and w components

The aircraft also has three degrees of freedom

in rotation, also orthogonal to each other

[p,q,r].

Control Surfaces and Rotation

The three degrees of freedom in rotation, and

the control surfaces which typically produce the

moments which cause those rotations are as

shown. Figure (a) shows rotation about the

aircrafts longitudinal (x) axis. This motion is

called rolling and the maneuver is called a

roll. Control surfaces on the aircrafts wings

called ailerons deflect differentially (one

trailing edge up and one trailing edge down) to

create more lift on one wing, less on the other,

and therefore a net rolling moment.

Ailerons

Pitch

Rotation of the aircraft about the lateral axis is

called pitching. A control surface near the rear

of the aircraft called an elevator or stabilator is

deflected so that it generates a lift force which,

due to its moment arm from the aircraft center of

gravity also creates a pitching moment. An

elevator is a moveable surface attached to a

fixed (immovable) horizontal stabilizer, a small

horizontal surface near the tail of the aircraft

which acts like the feathers of an arrow to help

keep the aircraft pointed in the right direction. A

stabilator combines the functions of the

horizontal stabilizer and the elevator. The

stabilator does not have a fixed portion. It is said

to be all-moving.

Elevator

Yaw

Rotating about the vertical axis so

that the nose moves right or left is

called Yawing. A moveable surface

called a rudder which is attached to

the aircrafts fixed vertical stabilizer

deflects to generate a lift force in a

sideways direction. Because the

vertical stabilizer and rudder are

toward the rear of the aircraft, some

distance from its center of gravity, the

lift force they generate produces a

moment about the vertical axis which

causes the aircraft to yaw

Rudder

Other Control Surfaces

A number of unique aircraft configurations have given rise to additional types of

control surfaces. These often combine the functions of two surfaces in one, and their

names are created by combining the names of the two surfaces, just as the name

stabilator was created by combining stabilizer and elevator.

A flaperon, combines the functions of an aileron and a plain flap (for greater lift) in a

single surface. [French Rafale multi-role fighter aircraft]. Pitch control for this aircraft

is provided by canards,

Stabilators placed forward of rather than behind the wings, and elevons, control

surfaces at the rear of the wings. Elevons move together to function as elevators and

also move differentially like ailerons to provide roll control.

Flying wing aircraft, including delta-wing jet fighters such as the Mirage 2000 and

Convair F-106 use elevons alone for pitch and roll control. It is interesting to note

that the Vought F7U Cutlass twin-jet flying-wing fighter of the with separate vertical

and horizontal tail surfaces has a V-tail. The moveable control surfaces attached to

the fixed surfaces of the V-tail are called ruddervators, because they function as

elevators when moving together and rudders when moving differentially.

FAMOUS QUOTES

The balancing of a gliding or flying machine is

very simple in theory. It merely consists in

causing the center of pressure to coincide with

the center of gravity. But in actual practice there

seems to be an almost boundless incompatibility

of temper which prevents their remaining

peaceably together for a single instant, so that

the operator, who in this case acts as

peacemaker, often suffers injury to himself while

attempting to bring them together.

Wilbur Wright

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