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AEROSPACE VEHICLE

STABILITY AND CONTROL


BY
GP CAPT NC CHATTOPADHYAY
FAMOUS QUOTES
True stability results when presumed
order and presumed disorder are
balanced. A truly stable system expects
the unexpected, is prepared to be
disrupted, waits to be transformed.
Tom Robbins quotes (American Novelist. b.1936)
COURSE STRUCTURE
03 CR
TWO PARTS [ SEC-A, B]
TOTAL 300 MARKS [105 X 2 (SEC-A & B)
+ 60 (03/04 CTs) +15 + 15 = 300]
NO SESSIONAL

COURSE STRUCTURE [ SEC-A]
INTRO TO STABILITY
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS & RECAP
AERODYNAMICS
NOTATIONS , CONVENTIONS
UNSTEADY MOTIONS & EQUATIONS
MEAN AERODYNAMIC CENTRE
STATIC VS DYNAMIC STABILITY, STABILITY
DERIVATIVES
HIGH TECH CONTROLS [SAS, AFCS,
EFCS,FBL]
SPACE VEHICLE CONTROL
COURSE STRUCTURE [ SEC-B]
LONGITUDINAL STABILITY &
CONTROL
EFFECTS OF WING, BODY, TAIL AND
OTHER SURFACES
LATERAL STABILITY AND CONTROL
DIRECTIONAL STABILITY AND
CONTROL
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF
STABILITY AND CONTROL

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
MECHANICS OF FLIGHT- KERMODE [T]
AERODYNAMICS- CLANCY [ T]
AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE STABILITY &
CONTROL- PERKIN & HAGE [R]
DYNAMICS OF FLIGHT ETKIN & REID [R]
AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT AND
MISSILE- BLAKELOCK [R]
FLIGHT STABILITY AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL-
NELSON [R]
NOTE: [T]- TEXT, [R]- REFERENCE
FAMOUS QUOTES
A thing is right when it tends to preserve
the integrity, stability and beauty of the
biotic community. It is wrong when it tends
otherwise.
Aldo Leopold AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTALIST

STABILITY FUNDA
Simply stated, stability and control is the science behind
keeping the aircraft pointed in a desired direction.

Whereas performance analysis sums the forces on an
aircraft, stability and control analysis requires summing the
moments acting on it due to surface pressure and shear stress
distributions, engine thrust, etc., and ensuring those moments
sum to zero when the aircraft is oriented as desired.

Stability analysis also deals with the changes in moments on
the aircraft when it is disturbed from equilibrium, the condition
when all forces and moments on it sum to zero. An aircraft
which tends to drift away from its desired equilibrium condition,
or which oscillates wildly about the equilibrium condition, is
said to lack sufficient stability
CONTROL FUNDA
Control analysis determines how the aircraft
should be designed so that sufficient control
authority (sufficiently large moments generated
when controls are used) is available to allow the
aircraft to fly all maneuvers and at all speeds
required by the design specifications.

Good stability and control characteristics are as
essential to the success of an aircraft as are good
lift, drag, and propulsion characteristics.
THE LANGUAGE

The science of stability and control is complex, and only an
orderly, step-by-step approach to the problem will yield
sufficient understanding and acceptable results.

This process must begin by defining quite a number of axes,
angles, forces, moments, displacements, and rotations.

As much as possible, these definitions will be consistent with
those used in aerodynamic and performance analysis, but
occasionally the complexity and unique requirements of stability
and control problems dictate that less intuitive definitions and
reference points be used.
Coordinate System

One of the least intuitive elements of stability and
control analysis is the coordinate system

Conventionally, the vertical (z) axis is defined as
positive downward! The reason for this choice is a
desire to have consistent and convenient definitions
for positive moments

The moment about the aerodynamic center of an
airfoil or wing as being positive in a nose-up direction,
the lateral (span wise) axis of the aircraft coordinate
system is positive in the direction from the right wing
root to the right wing tip

Coordinate System
The aircrafts longitudinal axis (down its centerline) is chosen
parallel to and usually coincident with its aircraft reference line
but positive toward the aircrafts nose so that a moment
tending to raise the left wing and lower the right wing is positive

This axis is chosen as the x axis to be consistent with
performance analysis. Making x positive toward the front
allows the aircrafts thrust and velocity to be taken as positive
quantities

Since a rotation about the longitudinal axis to the right or
clockwise is positive, for consistency it is desired that a moment
or rotation about the aircrafts vertical axis such that the nose
moves to the right be considered positive. This requires that
the vertical axis be positive downward so that the right-hand
rule is satisfied
Degrees of Freedom

The aircraft has six degrees of freedom, six
ways it can move.
It has three degrees of freedom in translation
(linear motion) which are orthogonal to each
other. Components of its velocity along the x,
y, and z axes are labeled u, v, and w. Lower
case is used to avoid confusion with V , which
typically has both u and w components
The aircraft also has three degrees of freedom
in rotation, also orthogonal to each other
[p,q,r].
Control Surfaces and Rotation

The three degrees of freedom in rotation, and
the control surfaces which typically produce the
moments which cause those rotations are as
shown. Figure (a) shows rotation about the
aircrafts longitudinal (x) axis. This motion is
called rolling and the maneuver is called a
roll. Control surfaces on the aircrafts wings
called ailerons deflect differentially (one
trailing edge up and one trailing edge down) to
create more lift on one wing, less on the other,
and therefore a net rolling moment.
Ailerons
Pitch
Rotation of the aircraft about the lateral axis is
called pitching. A control surface near the rear
of the aircraft called an elevator or stabilator is
deflected so that it generates a lift force which,
due to its moment arm from the aircraft center of
gravity also creates a pitching moment. An
elevator is a moveable surface attached to a
fixed (immovable) horizontal stabilizer, a small
horizontal surface near the tail of the aircraft
which acts like the feathers of an arrow to help
keep the aircraft pointed in the right direction. A
stabilator combines the functions of the
horizontal stabilizer and the elevator. The
stabilator does not have a fixed portion. It is said
to be all-moving.
Elevator
Yaw
Rotating about the vertical axis so
that the nose moves right or left is
called Yawing. A moveable surface
called a rudder which is attached to
the aircrafts fixed vertical stabilizer
deflects to generate a lift force in a
sideways direction. Because the
vertical stabilizer and rudder are
toward the rear of the aircraft, some
distance from its center of gravity, the
lift force they generate produces a
moment about the vertical axis which
causes the aircraft to yaw
Rudder
Other Control Surfaces

A number of unique aircraft configurations have given rise to additional types of
control surfaces. These often combine the functions of two surfaces in one, and their
names are created by combining the names of the two surfaces, just as the name
stabilator was created by combining stabilizer and elevator.
A flaperon, combines the functions of an aileron and a plain flap (for greater lift) in a
single surface. [French Rafale multi-role fighter aircraft]. Pitch control for this aircraft
is provided by canards,

Stabilators placed forward of rather than behind the wings, and elevons, control
surfaces at the rear of the wings. Elevons move together to function as elevators and
also move differentially like ailerons to provide roll control.

Flying wing aircraft, including delta-wing jet fighters such as the Mirage 2000 and
Convair F-106 use elevons alone for pitch and roll control. It is interesting to note
that the Vought F7U Cutlass twin-jet flying-wing fighter of the with separate vertical
and horizontal tail surfaces has a V-tail. The moveable control surfaces attached to
the fixed surfaces of the V-tail are called ruddervators, because they function as
elevators when moving together and rudders when moving differentially.
FAMOUS QUOTES
The balancing of a gliding or flying machine is
very simple in theory. It merely consists in
causing the center of pressure to coincide with
the center of gravity. But in actual practice there
seems to be an almost boundless incompatibility
of temper which prevents their remaining
peaceably together for a single instant, so that
the operator, who in this case acts as
peacemaker, often suffers injury to himself while
attempting to bring them together.
Wilbur Wright