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Learning, Perception,

Attitudes, Values, and Ethics


Fundamentals of
Organizational Behavior 2e

Andrew J. DuBrin
PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook
Chapter
3
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 32
Learning Objectives
1. Explain two learning processes relevant to
organizational behavior.
2. Describe key aspects of the perceptual process,
along with common perceptual problems.
3. Discuss the importance of attitudes to behavior in
organizations.
4. Summarize why values are an important part of
organizational behavior.
5. Apply the eight-step guide to ethical decision
making when faced with an ethical dilemma.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 33
Learning
Learning
Is a relatively permanent change in behavior based on
practice or experience.
Is beyond innate inborn patterns of behavior.
Is necessary for satisfactory job performance.

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 34
Modeling and Shaping
Modeling (imitation)
Occurs when a skill is learned by observing another person
performing that skill.
Requires careful observation followed shortly thereafter by
use of the newly acquired skill.
Elicits new behaviors in motivated capable learners.
Shaping
Is learning through the positive
reinforcement or rewarding of
small steps that build to the
final or desired behavior.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 35
Cognitive Learning
Cognitive learning theory
Learning is a complicated process in which reasoning and
analytical skills are used in acquiring knowledge.
Informal learning
Is learning that is not determined or designed by the
organization. It can be divided into four categories:
Practical skills
I ntrapersonal skills
I nterpersonal skills
Cultural awareness
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 36
Learning Styles
Concepts of learning style
People learn best in different ways.
Certain material is best mastered in certain ways (e.g.,
learning to swim by practicing in a pool).
Some people learn best alone; others in groups.
Four modes of learning styles:
Concrete experience
Reflective observation
Abstract conceptualization
Active experimentation
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 37
Perception
Perception
Deals with the ways in which people interpret things and
how they act on the basis of these perceptions.
Has important effects on job satisfaction
and motivation, which, in turn, lead to better
job performance.
Aspects of perception important
to managers:
Perceptual distortions and problems
How people attribute causes to events

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 38
Perceptual Distortions and Problems
Characteristics of the stimulus
Having a strong interest (i.e., emotions,
needs, attitude, or motivation)
in an issue tends to cause
misperceptions of a
stimulus.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 39
Perceptual Distortions and Problems
Mental processing shortcuts
Denialrefusing to admit that the information even exists.
Stereotypingreducing ego discomfort by evaluating
individuals on the basis of the group to which we perceive
that they should belong.
Halo Effectallowing one recognizable or unfavorable trait
to color all that we know about a person.
Projectionprojecting personal faults onto others and not
making an objective appraisal of the situation.
Selective Perceptionfiltering out information with which
we do not agree.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 310

Perceptual
Distortion
Emotionally
Charged
Stimulus
Mental Processes
Person as
Perceiver
Denial
Stereotyping
Halo effect
Projection
Selective perception
Im a human with feelings.
I think I heard you say that
Im better than most workers.
Did you say that I get
an average performance
evaluation?
I have to interpret this
message for myself.
Contributors to
Perceptual Distortions
EXHIBIT
3-1
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 311
Attribution Theory
People ascribe causes to behaviors based on
information gathered about the three dimensions
of behavior:
Consensushow similar is the persons
behavior to the behavior of others on the
same task.
Distinctivenesshow much does the persons
level of performance on the task at hand
differ from their performance on other tasks.
Consistencyhow stable is the persons level
of performance over time.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 312
Locus of Control
Internal locus of control
Persons who perceive themselves
to be in control of their lives; and
creators of their own opportunities.


External locus of control
Persons who believe that their lives
are controlled by circumstances
and attribute their success or
failure to luck.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 313
Behavioral
How a person intends
to act toward an object
or a task
Attitudes
An attitude
Is a predisposition that influences a persons response to
an object (an idea, a person, thing, or a situation).
Components of attitudes




Cognitive dissonance
Occurs when knowledge, information, and attitudes are
contradictory and cause an individual to be conflicted.
Affective
Emotions connected
with an object or a
task
Cognitive
Knowledge/beliefs
about an object or a
task
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 314
Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction
Is the amount of pleasure or contentment that a person
associates with a job.
Consequences of job satisfaction are:
High productivity when the work involves people contact
A stronger tendency to achieve customer loyalty
Low absenteeism and turnover
Less job stress and burnout
Better safety performance
Better life satisfaction
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 315

Specific Issues that Influence Employee Satisfaction

Do I know what my boss expects of me?
Do I have what I need to do my work properly?
Am I allowed to do what I do best every day?
Has anyone praised or recognized my work in the past week?
Does anyone encourage my career growth?
Does my manager respect my opinion?
Are my coworkers dedicated to producing quality work?
Have I learned something new in the part year?

Employees who answer Yes to all the questions
are likely to stay with their firm for the long haul.
EXHIBIT
3-2 Source: Supervisors Guide to Employment Practices, Clement
Communications Inc., 10 LaCrue Ave., Concordville, PA 19331.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 316
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
OCB
Is the willingness to work for the good of the organization
even without the promise of a specific reward.
OCB components:
Conscientiousness
Altruism
Civic virtue
Courtesy
Sportsmanship
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 317
Value Stereotypes for Several
Generations of Workers
EXHIBIT
3-3
Source: Several of the ideas in this table are from Robert McGarvey, The Coming of
Gen X Bosses, Entrepreneur, November 1999, pp. 6064; Joanne M. Glenn,
Teaching the Net Generation, Business Education Forum, February 2000, pp. 614.
B Ba ab by y B Bo oo om me er rs s
( (1 19 94 46 6 1 19 96 64 4) )
G Ge en ne er ra at ti io on n X X
( (1 19 96 65 5 1 19 97 77 7) )
G Ge en ne er ra at ti io on n Y Y
( (1 19 97 78 8 1 19 98 84 4) )
U Us se es s t te ec ch hn no ol lo og gy y a as s n ne ec ce es ss sa ar ry y t to oo ol l T Te ec ch hn no o s sa av vv vy y T Te ec ch hn no o s sa av vv vy y
A Ap pp pr re ec ci ia at te es s h hi ie er ra ar rc ch hy y T Te ea am mw wo or rk k v ve er ry y i im mp po or rt ta an nt t T Te ea am mw wo or rk k v ve er ry y i im mp po or rt ta an nt t
T To ol le er ra at te es s t te ea am ms s b bu ut t v va al lu ue es s
i in nd de ep pe en nd de en nt t w wo or rk k
D Di is sl li ik ke es s h hi ie er ra ar rc ch hy y C Cu ul lt tu ur ra al ll ly y d di iv ve er rs se e
D Di is sl li ik ke es s h hi ie er ra ar rc ch hy y
S St tr ro on ng g c ca ar re ee er r o or ri ie en nt ta at ti io on n S St tr ri iv ve es s f fo or r w wo or rk k/ / l li if fe e b ba al la an nc ce e b bu ut t
w wi il ll l w wo or rk k l lo on ng g h ho ou ur rs s f fo or r n no ow w
S St tr ri iv ve es s f fo or r w wo or rk k/ / l li if fe e b ba al la an nc ce e b bu ut t
w wi il ll l w wo or rk k l lo on ng g h ho ou ur rs s f fo or r n no ow w
M Mo or re e l lo oy ya al lt ty y t to o o or rg ga an ni iz za at ti io on n L Lo oy ya al lt ty y t to o o ow wn n c ca ar re ee er r a an nd d
p pr ro of fe es ss si io on n
B Be el li ie ef f i in n i in nf fo or rm ma al li it ty y
W Wa an nt ts s t to o s st tr ri ik ke e i it t r ri ic ch h q qu ui ic ck kl ly y
H Hi ig gh hl ly y r re eg ga ar rd ds s s st ta ar rt t- -u up p c co om mp pa an ni ie es s
F Fa av vo or rs s d di ip pl lo om ma ac cy y C Ca an nd di id d i in n c co on nv ve er rs sa at ti io on n C Ca an nd di id d i in n c co on nv ve er rs sa at ti io on n
F Fa av vo or rs s o ol ld d e ec co on no om my y A Ap pp pr re ec ci ia at te es s o ol ld d a an nd d n ne ew w e ec co on no om my y P Pr re ef fe er rs s t th he e n ne ew w e ec co on no om my y
E Ex xp pe ec ct ts s a a b bo on nu us s b ba as se ed d o on n
p pe er rf fo or rm ma an nc ce e
W Wo ou ul ld d a ap pp pr re ec ci ia at te e a a s si ig gn ni in ng g b bo on nu us s E Ex xp pe ec ct ts s a a s si ig gn ni in ng g b bo on nu us s

A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 318
How Values Are Learned
Values are acquired through:
Modeling and identification with the behaviors of parents,
teachers, friends, siblings.
Communication of values by
influential persons.
Unstated or implied attitudes
of key people.
Religious training and
social morals.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 319
The Mesh Between Individual and
Organizational Values
Congruence between employee and firm values is
important because:
Employee job performance is likely to be higher .
Employees are more successful and believe they can reach
their career goals.
Employees are more likely to remain
with the firm and to work longer hours.
Employees do not suffer person-role
conflict in attempting to obey orders
that clash with personal values.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 320
Ethics: Moral Choices and Actions
Ethical decision-making considerations focus on:
Consequences of the decision or action
The concern here is that there is a net balance of good over
bad (utilitarianism) as a result of the decision or action taken.
Duties, obligations, and principles
Acting on universal moral principles (the deontological
approach) outweighs any consideration of the consequences.
Integrity (Virtue ethics)
The character and motivation of the person involved
determines the ethicality of the decision or action.
A. J. Dubrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright 2002 by South-Western. 321
An Eight-Step Guide to Ethical Decision Making
(Trevio and Nelson)
1. Gather the facts.
2. Define the ethical issues.
3. Identify the affected parties.
4. Identify the consequences.
5. Identify the obligations.
6. Consider your character and integrity.
7. Think creatively about potential actions.
8. Check your intuition.