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# 3.

## 2 Understanding the Force on a Current-

carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field
(Part 1)

By Ms Nurul Ain Mat Aron
Chapter 3: Electromagnetism
Objectives
1. describe what happens to a current -carrying conductor in a
magnetic field
2. draw the pattern of the combined magnetic field due to a
current - carrying conductor in a magnetic field
3. describe how a current carrying conductor in a magnetic
field experiences a force
4. explain the factors that affect the magnitude of the force on a
current - carrying conductor in a magnetic field
5. describe how a current -carrying coil in a magnetic field
experiences a turning force
6. describe how a direct current motor works
7. state factors that affect the speed of rotation of an electric
motor
Force on a Current Carrying Conductor
in a Magnetic Field
We have learned that when current flows in a conductor, a magnetic field
will be generated.
When the current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the
interaction between the two magnetic fields will produce a resultant field
known as the catapult field as shown in the figure below.
Force on a Current Carrying Conductor
in a Magnetic Field
The catapult field is a non-uniform field where the field at one side is
stronger than the other side.
As a result, a force is produced to move the current carrying conductor
from the stronger field to the weaker field.
The force produced by a catapult field is called the catapult force.
Force on a Current Carrying Conductor
in a Magnetic Field
The direction of the force can be determined by Fleming's left hand rule
Force on a Current Carrying Conductor
in a Magnetic Field
The strength of the force can be increased by:
Increase the current
Using a stronger magnet
using a longer wire
arranging the wire perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field.

Turning Effect of a Current Carrying
Coil in a Magnetic Field
If a current carrying coil is placed in a magnetic field, a pair of forces will be
produced on the coil.

This is due to the interaction of the magnetic field of the permanent magnet and the
magnetic filed of the current carrying coil.
The diagram below shows the catapult field produced.
The direction of the force can be determined by Fleming's left hand rule.

Since the current in both sides of the coil flow in opposite direction, the forces
produced are also in opposite direction. The 2 forces in opposite direction
constitute a couple which produces a turning effect to make the coil rotate.
Application of the Force on a Current Carrying
Conductor in a Magnetic Field
(1) Moving Coil Meter
Light Indicator
A light indicator which has lower inertia is used to increase the sensitivity of
the meter.
Application of the Force on a Current Carrying
Conductor in a Magnetic Field
Moving Coil Meter
Linear Scale
Due to the radial magnetic field and the cylindrical soft-iron core, a linear
scale is produced.
A linear scale is more accurate and easier to be read.

Mirror
A mirror is used to prevent parallax error.
When the observer's eye is exactly above the indicator, the indicator will
cover its own image on the mirror.
This can used to prevent parallax error.

Curved Permanent Magnet
A curved permanent magnet is used to produce a radial field.
A radial field is a magnetic field where the field lines are either pointing
away or toward the center of the field.
A radial can be focused by a cylindrical soft-iron core.
Application of the Force on a Current Carrying
Conductor in a Magnetic Field
Moving Coil Meter
Rectangular Coils
When a current flows through the coils, a force will be generated due to the
interaction between the magnetic field of the permanent magnet and the coil.
The force will turn the coils, which in turn move the indicator.

Cylindrical Soft-Iron Core
A cylindrical soft iron core is placed inside the radial field produced by the curved
magnet.
A soft-iron core can focus the magnetic field of the permanent magnet.

Hair Spring
The deflection of the coil and the indicator stops when the force is balanced by the
opposing force from the hair spring.
The angle of deflection is directly proportional to the magnitude of the current in
the coil.
Direct Current Motor
It consist a rectangular coil of wire placed between 2 permanent magnets.
The coil are soldered to a copper split ring known as commutator. 2 carbon
brushes are held against the commutator.
The function of the brush is to conduct electricity from the external circuit to the
coil and allow the commutator to rotate continuously.
The function of the commutator is to change the direction of the current in the coil
and hence change the direction of the couple (the 2 forces in opposite direction) in
every half revolution.
This is to make sure that the coil can rotate continuously.
DC versus AC
same function of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy,
they are powered, constructed and controlled differently.
A.C. motors are powered from alternating current (A.C.) while D.C. motors are
powered from direct current (D.C.), such as batteries.
D.C. power supplies or an AC-to-DC power converter. D.C wound field motors are
constructed with brushes and a commutator, which add to the maintenance, limit
the speed and usually reduce the life expectancy of brushed D.C. motors.
A.C. induction motors do not use brushes; they are very rugged and have long life
expectancies.
The speed of a D.C. motor is controlled by varying the armature windings current
while the speed of an A.C. motor is controlled by varying the frequency, which is
commonly done with an adjustable frequency drive control.
Force between 2 Current-Carrying Conductors
When 2 current carrying conductors are placed close to each other, a force will
be generated between them.
If the current in both conductors flow in the same direction, they will attract each
other, whereas if the current are in opposite direction, they will repel each other.
This force is due to the interaction between the magnetic field of the 2 conductor.
The figure below shows the catapult field produced by 2 current carrying
conductors when their current is in the same direction or opposite direction.