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# CS 103 1

## Tree Traversal Techniques;

Heaps
Tree Traversal Concept
Tree Traversal Techniques: Preorder,
Inorder, Postorder
Full Trees
Almost Complete Trees
Heaps
CS 103 2
Binary-Tree Related Definitions
The children of any node in a binary tree are
ordered into a left child and a right child
A node can have a left and
a right child, a left child
only, a right child only,
or no children
The tree made up of a left
child (of a node x) and all its
descendents is called the left subtree of x
Right subtrees are defined similarly
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4 6
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12
CS 103 3
A Binary-tree Node Class
class TreeNode {
public:
typedef int datatype;
TreeNode(datatype x=0, TreeNode *left=NULL,
TreeNode *right=NULL){
data=x; this->left=left; this->right=right; };
datatype getData( ) {return data;};
TreeNode *getLeft( ) {return left;};
TreeNode *getRight( ) {return right;};
void setData(datatype x) {data=x;};
void setLeft(TreeNode *ptr) {left=ptr;};
void setRight(TreeNode *ptr) {right=ptr;};
private:
datatype data; // different data type for other apps
TreeNode *left; // the pointer to left child
TreeNode *right; // the pointer to right child
};
CS 103 4
Binary Tree Class

class Tree {
public:
typedef int datatype;
Tree(TreeNode *rootPtr=NULL){this->rootPtr=rootPtr;};
TreeNode *search(datatype x);
bool insert(datatype x); TreeNode * remove(datatype x);
TreeNode *getRoot(){return rootPtr;};
Tree *getLeftSubtree(); Tree *getRightSubtree();
bool isEmpty(){return rootPtr == NULL;};
private:
TreeNode *rootPtr;
};
CS 103 5
Binary Tree Traversal
Traversal is the process of visiting every
node once
Visiting a node entails doing some
processing at that node, but when describing
a traversal strategy, we need not concern
ourselves with what that processing is
CS 103 6
Binary Tree Traversal Techniques
Three recursive techniques for binary tree
traversal
In each technique, the left subtree is
traversed recursively, the right subtree is
traversed recursively, and the root is visited
What distinguishes the techniques from one
another is the order of those 3 tasks
CS 103 7
Preoder, Inorder, Postorder
In Preorder, the root
is visited before (pre)
the subtrees traversals
In Inorder, the root is
visited in-between left
and right subtree traversal
In Postorder, the root
is visited after (post)
the subtrees traversals
Preorder Traversal:
1. Visit the root
2. Traverse left subtree
3. Traverse right subtree
Inorder Traversal:
1. Traverse left subtree
2. Visit the root
3. Traverse right subtree
Postorder Traversal:
1. Traverse left subtree
2. Traverse right subtree
3. Visit the root
CS 103 8
Illustrations for Traversals
Assume: visiting a node
is printing its label
Preorder:
1 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Inorder:
4 5 6 3 1 8 7 9 11 10 12
Postorder:
4 6 5 3 8 11 12 10 9 7 1
1
3
11
9 8
4 6
5
7
12
10
CS 103 9
Illustrations for Traversals (Contd.)
Assume: visiting a node
is printing its data
Preorder: 15 8 2 6 3 7
11 10 12 14 20 27 22 30
Inorder: 2 3 6 7 8 10 11
12 14 15 20 22 27 30
Postorder: 3 7 6 2 10 14
12 11 8 22 30 27 20 15
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CS 103 10
Code for the Traversal Techniques
The code for visit
is up to you to
provide, depending
on the application
A typical example
for visit() is to
print out the data
part of its input
node
void inOrder(Tree *tree){
if (tree->isEmpty( )) return;
inOrder(tree->getLeftSubtree( ));
visit(tree->getRoot( ));
inOrder(tree->getRightSubtree( ));
}
void preOrder(Tree *tree){
if (tree->isEmpty( )) return;
visit(tree->getRoot( ));
preOrder(tree->getLeftSubtree());
preOrder(tree->getRightSubtree());
}
void postOrder(Tree *tree){
if (tree->isEmpty( )) return;
postOrder(tree->getLeftSubtree( ));
postOrder(tree->getRightSubtree( ));
visit(tree->getRoot( ));
}
CS 103 11
Application of Traversal
Sorting a BST
Observe the output of the inorder traversal
of the BST example two slides earlier
It is sorted
This is no coincidence
As a general rule, if you output the keys
(data) of the nodes of a BST using inorder
traversal, the data comes out sorted in
increasing order
CS 103 12
Other Kinds of Binary Trees
(Full Binary Trees)
Full Binary Tree: A full binary tree is a
binary tree where all the leaves are on the
same level and every non-leaf has two
children
The first four full binary trees are:
CS 103 13
Examples of Non-Full Binary Trees
These trees are NOT full binary trees: (do
you know why?)
CS 103 14
Canonical Labeling of
Full Binary Trees
Label the nodes from 1 to n from the top to
the bottom, left to right
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3
1
2
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4 5
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7
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2 3
4
5 6
7
8 9 10
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13 14 15
Relationships between labels
of children and parent:

2i
2i+1
i
CS 103 15
Other Kinds of Binary Trees
(Almost Complete Binary trees)
Almost Complete Binary Tree: An almost
complete binary tree of n nodes, for any
arbitrary nonnegative integer n, is the binary
tree made up of the first n nodes of a
canonically labeled full binary
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2 3
4 5
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2
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2 3
4 5
6
1
2 3
4
1
2 3
4 5
CS 103 16
Depth/Height of Full Trees and
Almost Complete Trees
The height (or depth ) h of such trees is O(log n)
Proof: In the case of full trees,
The number of nodes n is: n=1+2+2
2
+2
3
++2
h
=2
h+1
-1
Therefore, 2
h+1
= n+1, and thus, h=log(n+1)-1
Hence, h=O(log n)
For almost complete trees, the proof is left as an
exercise.
CS 103 17
Canonical Labeling of
Almost Complete Binary Trees
Same labeling inherited from full binary
trees
Same relationship holding between the
labels of children and parents:
Relationships between labels
of children and parent:

2i
2i+1
i
CS 103 18
Array Representation of Full Trees
and Almost Complete Trees
A canonically label-able tree, like full binary trees
and almost complete binary trees, can be
represented by an array A of the same length as
the number of nodes
A[k] is identified with node of label k
That is, A[k] holds the data of node k
Advantage:
no need to store left and right pointers in the nodes
save memory
Direct access to nodes: to get to node k, access A[k]
CS 103 19
Illustration of Array Representation

Notice: Left child of A[5] (of data 11) is A[2*5]=A[10] (of data 18),
and its right child is A[2*5+1]=A[11] (of data 12).
Parent of A[4] is A[4/2]=A[2], and parent of A[5]=A[5/2]=A[2]
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12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11
CS 103 20
Adjustment of Indexes
Notice that in the previous slides, the node labels start
from 1, and so would the corresponding arrays
But in C/C++, array indices start from 0
The best way to handle the mismatch is to adjust the
canonical labeling of full and almost complete trees.
Start the node labeling from 0 (rather than 1).
The children of node k are now nodes (2k+1) and
(2k+2), and the parent of node k is (k-1)/2, integer
division.
CS 103 21
Application of Almost Complete
Binary Trees: Heaps
A heap (or min-heap to be precise) is an
almost complete binary tree where
Every node holds a data value (or key)
The key of every node is the keys of the
children
Note:
A max-heap has the same definition except that the
Key of every node is >= the keys of the children
CS 103 22
Example of a Min-heap

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CS 103 23
Operations on Heaps
Delete the minimum value and return it.
This operation is called deleteMin.
Insert a new data value
Applications of Heaps:
A heap implements a priority queue, which is a queue
that orders entities not a on first-come first-serve basis,
but on a priority basis: the item of highest priority is at
the head, and the item of the lowest priority is at the tail

Another application: sorting, which will be seen later
CS 103 24
DeleteMin in Min-heaps
The minimum value in a min-heap is at the root!
To delete the min, you cant just remove the data
value of the root, because every node must hold a
key
Instead, take the last node from the heap, move its
key to the root, and delete that last node
But now, the tree is no longer a heap (still almost
complete, but the root key value may no longer be
the keys of its children
CS 103 25
Illustration of First Stage of deletemin

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CS 103 26
Restore Heap
To bring the structure back to its
heapness, we restore the heap
Swap the new root key with the smaller
child.
Now the potential bug is at the one level
down. If it is not already the keys of its
children, swap it with its smaller child
Keep repeating the last step until the bug key
becomes its children, or the it becomes a leaf
CS 103 27
Illustration of Restore-Heap

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Now it is a correct heap
CS 103 28
Time complexity of insert and deletmin
Both operations takes time proportional to the
height of the tree
When restoring the heap, the bug moves from level to
level until, in the worst case, it becomes a leaf (in
deletemin) or the root (in insert)
Each move to a new level takes constant time
Therefore, the time is proportional to the number of
levels, which is the height of the tree.
But the height is O(log n)
Therefore, both insert and deletemin take O(log n)
time, which is very fast.
CS 103 29
Inserting into a minheap
Suppose you want to insert a new value x
into the heap
Create a new node at the end of the heap
(or put x at the end of the array)
If x is >= its parent, done
Otherwise, we have to restore the heap:
Repeatedly swap x with its parent until either x
reaches the root of x becomes >= its parent
CS 103 30
Illustration of Insertion Into the Heap
In class
CS 103 31
The Min-heap Class in C++

class Minheap{ //the heap is implemented with a dynamic array
public:
typedef int datatype;
Minheap(int cap = 10){capacity=cap; length=0;
ptr = new datatype[cap];};
datatype deleteMin( );
void insert(datatype x);
bool isEmpty( ) {return length==0;};
int size( ) {return length;};
private:
datatype *ptr; // points to the array
int capacity;
int length;
void doubleCapacity(); //doubles the capacity when needed
};
CS 103 32
Code for deletemin

Minheap::datatype Minheap::deleteMin( ){
assert(length>0);
datatype returnValue = ptr[0];
length--; ptr[0]=ptr[length]; // move last value to root element
int i=0;
while ((2*i+1<length && ptr[i]>ptr[2*i+1]) ||
(2*i+2<length && (ptr[i]>ptr[2*i+1] ||
ptr[i]>ptr[2*i+2]))){ // bug still > at least one child
if (ptr[2*i+1] <= ptr[2*i+2]){ // left child is the smaller child
datatype tmp= ptr[i]; ptr[i]=ptr[2*i+1]; ptr[2*i+1]=tmp; //swap
i=2*i+1; }
else{ // right child if the smaller child. Swap bug with right child.
datatype tmp= ptr[i]; ptr[i]=ptr[2*i+2]; ptr[2*i+2]=tmp; // swap
i=2*i+2; }
}
return returnValue;
};
CS 103 33
Code for Insert

void Minheap::insert(datatype x){
if (length==capacity)
doubleCapacity();

ptr[length]=x;
int i=length;
length++;
while (i>0 && ptr[i] < ptr[i/2]){
datatype tmp= ptr[i];
ptr[i]=ptr[(i-1)/2];
ptr[(i-1)/2]=tmp;
i=(i-1)/2;
}
};
CS 103 34
Code for doubleCapacity

void Minheap::doubleCapacity(){
capacity = 2*capacity;
datatype *newptr = new datatype[capacity];
for (int i=0;i<length;i++)
newptr[i]=ptr[i];
delete [] ptr;
ptr = newptr;
};