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Introduction to Psycho-

Philosophical Foundations
of Education
Lizamarie C. Olegario
U.P. College of Education
What is Philosophy?
Not a body of knowledge
There is no such thing as a definite set of
philosophic truths
Not a way of obtaining knowledge
Not a method of research whose objective
is the discovery of new facts (not a

The love of wisdom
Greek words philia (love) and sophia
love (or passion): Although there is certainly a
role for dispassionate research, philosophy must
ultimately derive from some passion for the
ultimate goal
wisdom (knowledge, understanding): One
complicating issue is the fact that the Greek
sophia actually means quite a lot more than the
English translation wisdom.
Wisdom is not the same as knowledge
Wisdom implies a maturity of outlook, a
penetration and grasp, which knowledge
alone cannot guarantee
Four components of wisdom
Comprehension: meaningful whole
Perspective: intelligent judgment
Insight: what they really mean
Vision: daring outlook

For the Greeks, it wasnt simply a matter
of acquiring an understanding of the
nature of life; rather, it also included any
exercise of intelligence or curiosity.
Thus, any effort to find out more about
a topic involves the attempt to expand or
exercise sophia, and hence might be
characterized as a philosophical pursuit on
some level.
disciplined inquiry: Despite the need for
passion, that passion still needs to be
disciplined, lest it get out of hand and lead us
To be philosophic is to possess and
attitude, a spirit, an intention, rather than
a secure accomplishment.
An ignorant man in search of wisdom
would be more of a philosopher than a
learned man satisfied with his knowledge
The fact that philosophy is a type of inquiry,
however, emphasizes the fact that it is about
asking questions questions which, in fact,
may never actually get final answers.
They do not fall within the competence of any of
the sciences.
They are questions of broad generality,
questions whose answers have far-reaching
consequences for our understanding ourselves
and our world.

A way of looking at knowledge which we
already have
Involves the organization, interpretation,
classificaion and criticism of what is
already within the realm of the known and
the experienced
The subject matter is as wide as human
experience itself
Separate but Complimentary/
Interdependent Tasks
Critical: involves posing difficult and
probing questions about various truth
claims, both those made commonly in
life and those made by philosophers
The purpose is to find truth and avoid
error, a difficult job even in the best
of circumstances.
Separate but Complimentary/
Interdependent Tasks
Constructive: involves developing an
accurate and productive picture of reality.
Much of the history of philosophy involves
trying to develop systems of
understanding which can withstand the
hard questions of critical philosophy.
There is little point in critiquing the ideas
and proposals of others without having
something substantive to offer instead.
In the end, the hope of philosophy is to
understand understand ourselves, understand
our world, understand our values and the
entirety of existence around us.
Philosophy requires our active engagement with
the world, with ideas, with concepts, and with
our own thoughts.
Philosophy is the natural inheritance and
creation of our humanity.
The goal of academic philosophy
should be to encourage people to do
philosophy in a more systematic and
coherent manner, reducing the extent
of errors and misunderstandings.
It also examines and develops its own
structure and procedures, and when
it does so is called metaphilosophy:
the philosophy of philosophy.
Analytic tradition of North America and the UK
Philosophy centers on logic and conceptual analysis
Topics include the theory of knowledge, ethics, the
nature of language, and the nature of mind
Philosophy is something you do
Other traditions
Philosophy is the study of the arts and science of life:
a general theory and a commendation of way of life.
Philosophy is concerned with the practical bits of how
to live rather than a theoretical attempt to
Philosophy is a body of knowledge to be mastered.
The Way of the Philosopher
to purify, enrich, and coordinate the language
used to interpret experience
The Way of the Philosopher
Dialogue, reflection, introspection, logic, and
Concepts are subjected to the searching test of wider
application and concrete illustration
To ask questions is to put concepts on trial, to
challenge their adequacy for the interpretation of
The philosophers first duty is not to give answers but
to raise questions, and every answer is for him or her
the prelude and provocation for a new question
The Methods of Philosophy
What do the terms in the problem mean? Can
this meaning be clarified such that we aren't
confusing ourselves before we start? If not, does
the question make sense at all? This can be the
beginning of our investigation.
Does the structure of the question make sense?
It could be that the words used are understood
but the form of the question is in error in some
way, like asking are you a married bachelor?
This is the start of analysing the language in
which the question is posed.
The Methods of Philosophy
Are there any helpful sources of information we
can refer to? If so, we may want to ask if they
apply as they are or if there are limitations to be
borne in mind. If we want to call upon evidence
to aid us, we first need to know if our question
is open to experimental proof or disproof.
What kind of answer are we looking for? Does
the question require a definitive yes or no
response, or are we perhaps being asked for a
best guess? We need to consider the form of
answer we want to aim for or whether any
answer is possible.
The Methods of Philosophy
What are the consequences of the possible answers? Do
they tell us anything important enough to influence
which answer to choose, if any? If one or more of the
options seems to lead to consequences that are
impossible or seem highly unlikely, we can narrow our
search considerably. On the other hand, if people have
already based other decisions on a certain outcome of
the question, how will changing it alter their ideas?
Are there any errors in the reasoning we apply to the
question, such as the logical fallacies everyone talks
about? If so, can we avoid them?
The Way of the Philosopher
It is the function of philosophy to deal with
the most basic ideas, with those conceptions
which lie at the root of the language we
ordinarily use or even of technical and
specialized discourse
The business of the philosopher is always to
push the inquiry back to fundamental
premises and underlying assumptions
Seek to understand the principles that
underlie all knowledge and being
Applying these methods, they investigate
the most fundamental questions, such as:
"What is the difference between good and evil?
What makes an action good or bad or right or
How should we conduct ourselves?
What standards do we use to judge our
How much or how little do we need to consider
"What is beauty?"
What makes something beautiful or ugly?
(aesthetics: study of concepts like art, music, and
Axiology: ethics and aesthetics
"What is the nature of the universe?
Do gods or fairies exist? If not, why not?
Why does anything exist at all?
(metaphysics: the study of reality, or what there is)
"What is the meaning of life?"
What is there?
"What do we know, and how do we know it?"
Is knowledge empirical or is it acquired by mind
through reasoning alone?
Is knowledge revealed to us by God?
(epistemology: the study of methods and bases of
'Philosophy' covered all disciplines.
Various disciplines emerged, each with
their own methodologies and domains of
These disciplines became to a large extent
By this view, what is called 'philosophy' at
any time in history are those provinces of
human knowledge which have not yet
come of age, which not yet developed
their own autonomous character and
What is Psychology?
Latin words psyche (soul), ology
Greek words psyche and logos
Soul: mind, center of thought,
emotion, and behavior
Not obviously visible to the physical
Modern scientific fields -> behavior
scientific study of human and animal behavior
and mental processes/ mind
scientific study of (includes the use of definite
methods with the use of the steps of scientific
human and animal behavior (overt or external;
includes everything we do) and
mental processes/ mind (covert of internal; may
be conscious or unconscious)
when studying groups of individuals, the
focus is generally on how individuals
perform within the group rather than the
study of the group as a whole
could be a doorway to new insights about
ourselves and others why we are, what
we are, and why they are what they are,
why we feel and think as they do
Research develop theories to explain
Applied use the theories to solve

Goals of Psychology
to describe classification of psychological
data into meaningful categories or
groupings either qualitatively on the basis
of similarities or qualities they have in
common, or quantitatively on the basis of
a variable characteristic the can be
Goals of Psychology
to understand: to explain and interpret facts
about the behavior in terms of general principles
which can be applied for some practical purpose
to predict: scientific prediction based on an
understanding between conditions and situations
to control: how is the principle applied or what
change in condition is necessary to prevent
unwanted occurrence or to bring about a desired

What is Education?
Latin educare "to raise", "to bring
up", "to train", "to rear"
educere "to lead out" or "to lead
teaching/ training and learning
society transmits to new members the
values, beliefs, knowledge, and symbolic
expressions to make communication
possible within society (social and cultural
acquisition of knowledge, attitudes, skills,
and/or character
to fully develop capacities and potential
to be a productive member of society
(individual development function)
This definition does not tell us what kind
of knowledge, skill, competence, or
desirable qualities of behavior are to be
This consideration of what kind or
whatness brings us to philosophy of
Agencies of Education
formal (school system where a teacher-
student relation exists)
non-formal learning (learning outside the
formal learning system, but in an
organized way; ex: learning by coming
together with people with a similar
interest and exchanging viewpoints, in
clubs or in (international) youth
organizations, workshops
Agencies of Education
informal (home, family members, peers,
books, mass media, day-to-day situations)
Ultimately, all that we experience
serves as a form of education
Child in uterus is educated by the
experiences it is exposed to
The harmonious development of the
whole person, physical, intellectual,
moral, emotional, social, and spiritual,
and the actualization of his/ her
potentials to the fullest so as to
prepare him/ her as a mentally
healthy, morally upright, and
productive member of the society
Purpose depend on you/ the
Acquisition of information about the past
and present: includes traditional
disciplines such as literature, history,
science, mathematics
Development of mental and physical skills:
motor, thinking, communication, social,
Knowledge of moral practices and ethical
standards accepted by society/ culture
Purpose depend on you/ the
Indoctrination into the culture
Capacity/ ability to be a good citizen
Formation of healthy social and/ or formal
relationships among and between
students, teachers, others
Understanding of human relations and
Respect: giving and receiving recognition
as human beings
Purpose depend on you/ the
Sense of well-being: mental and
physical health
Capacity/ ability to think creatively
Cultural appreciation: art, music,
Capacity/ ability to recognize and
evaluate different points of view
(critical thinking)
Purpose depend on you/ the
Capacity/ ability to evaluate
information and to predict future
outcomes (decision-making)
Capacity/ ability to seek out
alternative solutions and evaluate
them (problem solving)
Capacity/ ability to earn a living:
career education
Purpose depend on you/ the
Acquisition/ clarification of values related
to the physical environment
Acquisition/ clarification of personal values
Self-realization/ self reflection: awareness
of ones abilities and goals.
Self-esteem/ self-efficacy
Capacity/ ability to live a fulfilling life
Philosophy of Education
The philosophy of education is the study
of the purpose, process, nature and ideals
of education.
This can be within the context of
education as a societal institution or more
broadly as the process of human
existential growth
i.e. how it is that our understanding of the
world is continually transformed (be it from
facts, social customs, experiences, or even
our own emotions).

Ways of Studying Educational
The history of ideas: what major
philosophers have written about
educational problems
Types of educational philosophy: schools
of thought
Selection from general philosophy:
branches of philosophy
Ways of Studying Educational
Problems of education: study issues in education
in philosophic manner
Aims or goals of education
Relation of education to church and to state
Respective functions of public and private schools
Nature of the curriculum
Systematic philosophy of education: one
philosophic approach
Can be a combination of ways

The Value of Educational
Understanding: what it means to be
engaged in the process of education
Seeing relationships
Removing inconsistencies: eliminating
conflicts and contradictions in the theory
and practice of education
Suggesting new developments
Raising questions

Philosophy of Education
examines questions of:
What is the meaning and purpose of
Why, and how, do teachers educate
What difference does education make for
individuals and for society?
Challenge: develop our own answers to
these questions and to create or own
philosophies of education
Educational Psychology
psychological science studying how
children and adults learn, the
effectiveness of educational strategies and
tactics, and how schools function as
the study of how human learn in
educational settings, the effectiveness of
educational interventions, the psychology
of teaching, and the social psychology of
schools as organizations
Educational Psychology
the study of those thoughts and behavior of
individuals and groups as they relate to how we
teach and learn, particularly in the school
the systematic study of learning and teaching
focuses on the process by which information,
skills, values, and attitudes are communicated
between teachers and students in the classroom
and on the application of the principles of
psychology to instructional processes
Educational Psychology
concerned with the processes of educational
attainment among the general population and
sub-populations such as gifted children and
those subject to specific disabilities
informs a wide range of specialities within
educational studies, including instructional
design, educational technology, curriculum
development, organizational learning, special
education, and classroom management
provides important background knowledge that
preservice and inservice educators can use as
the foundation for professional practice
Uses of Educational Psychology
Curriculum development type, length, content
of curriculum
Policy-making admission, promotion, etc
Determination of methods of teaching taking
into consideration variables like individual
differences of learners and teachers, nature of
the subject matter, grade level and
environmental conditions
Determination of course content should jibe
with factors such as the educational level and
interest of the learners
Uses of Educational Psychology
Measurement and evaluation helpful or
detrimental to the learners, maximizes
learning, thus facilitating the attainment of
the learners and the schools objectives
Management of the educational system
promotion of teachers, appointment of
teachers to teach a particular grade level
Guidance purposes
Uses of Educational Psychology
Enhancement of community-school
relationship understanding of community
values in working with parents, pupils, and
community at large
Guidelines for classroom management
useful in approaching problems like those
on absences, tardiness, classroom
misbehavior, cheating, and failures
Uses of Educational Psychology
Production-selection of materials
appropriate for a grade level or curriculum
when materials are too easy, too difficult
or too remote from the learners
experiences or aspirations, learning may
be hindered
Improvement of human relations in school
Outside the academe leadership
training, adult education, effective child-
Educational Psychologist
Has completed a graduate degree in
educational psychology or a closely related
field either psychology department or,
more commonly, faculty of education
Conducting active research
Educational Psychologist
Conducts assessments
To identify children with problems such as
learning disabilities, ADHD, emotion, or mood
disorders, and many childhood psychological
problems, esp. as they relate to educational
Assess young peoples learning and emotional
Educational Psychologist
Academic and behavioral intervention
Work together with teachers and parents to
enhance students learning and development
especially in cases of behavioral and learning
Develop and support therapeutic and behavior
management programs
Educational Psychologist
Advise on the needs of individual children in
the school environment
Advice, negotiate, persuade, and support
teachers, parents, and other education
Educational Psychologist
Crisis intervention
Attend case-conferences involving
multidisciplinary teams on how best to meet
the social, emotional, behavioral, and learning
needs of the children and young people in
their care
Educational Psychologist
Provide in-service training for teachers
and other professionals
On issues such as behavior management,
stress management, and assessment
Design and develop courses on topics such as
bullying for parents, teachers, and others
involved with the education of children and
young people

Educational Psychologist
Developing and review policies
Advice on educational provisions and
Write reports to make formal
recommendations on action to be taken,
including formal statements

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Only 6 out of every 1,000 Grade Six
elementary graduate students are
prepared to enter high school.
National Achievement Test
(Grades 4-6) SY 2002-2004
Mean Percentage Scores of the
National Achievement Tests in Grade VI
by Subject Area, SY 2004-2005
Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Only 2 out of every 100 Fourth Year high
school students are fit to enter college.
National Achievement Test
(Fourth Year) SY 2003-2004
Mean Percentage Scores of the
National Achievement Tests in Fourth Year
by Subject Area, SY 2004-2005

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Declining passing rates in many
professional regulatory examinations
LET passers (Teacher Profession)
Accountancy (CPA)
Bar Exam
? M out-of-school youth, dropping before
finishing Grade 6 mainly due to poverty
Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Only 19 out of every 100 public school teachers
have confidence and competence to teach
Teachers salary in the Philippines is around
P10,000 compared to salary in U.S. (more than
Shortage of Teachers (around 50,000 deficit)
Highschool: The Philippines is No. 41 in Science
and No. 42 in Mathematics among 45 countries
in Asia.

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Elementary: No. 23 among 25 Asian
Trends in International Mathematics and
Science Study (TIMSS): all scores fall
under the low benchmark of 400
established (as against the advanced
benchmark of 625, high benchmark of
550, and intermediate benchmark of 475)

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
1 in every 8 schools has teacher-to-pupil
ratio of 1:50 and above.
Some even have 1:75 with 2 to 3 shifts
Mean Percentage Score by Class Size
NAT Grade Six, SY 2004-2005
Math 52.6 55.7 60.5 60.5 58.6 58.9 56.4 57.8 50.0 44.4 54.5
English 52.5 54.6 59.7 60.4 59.2 59.6 57.2 55.9 51.0 50.7 55.1
Science 48.1 50.1 54.6 55.3 54.1 54.3 52.3 52.5 51.8 44.7 50.4
Filipino 55.5 57.3 61.6 62.7 62.2 62.5 60.6 59.1 58.7 58.7 56.9
Hekasi 53.1 55.3 60.0 60.7 59.7 59.9 57.8 56.6 50.7 50.8 55.1
Total 52.4 54.6 59.3 59.9 58.7 59.0 56.9 56.4 52.4 49.9 54.4

Mean Percentage Score by Class Size
NAT Fourth Year, SY 2004-2005
Math 46.2 46.7 51.9 53.7 52.7 50.8 50.7 47.5 44.3 43.8 45.0
English 46.1 46.2 51.5 52.4 52.4 51.4 51.7 50.0 48.5 49.2 45.6
Science 36.6 37.6 39.3 40.4 40.6 39.7 39.6 37.7 36.0 35.0 36.6
Filipino 39.6 39.0 41.6 42.9 43.0 42.7 42.8 41.7 41.0 40.8 39.2
AP 46.8 45.7 49.2 51.1 51.1 50.1 50.4 48.3 47.2 46.9 45.3
Total 43.0 43.1 46.7 48.1 48.0 47.0 47.1 45.0 43.4 43.1 42.3

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Growing enrolment in public schools due
to high cost of private schooling
1 in every 7 students does not have a
(around 40,000 deficit)
1 in every 5 students does not have a
(around 4M deficit)
Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer

1 in every 3 students does not have a
single textbook
2 to 8 students share in a single set of
(around 10M deficit)
Mean Percentage Score by Number of
Textbooks Lent to Grade VI Pupils
NAT SY 2004-2005
Philippines none 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9 or
Math 59.1 54.2 57.3 57.8 58.9 61.3 61.6 55.2
English 59.2 55.1 57.8 58.2 59.0 60.9 61.2 55.8
Science 54.1 50.5 53.0 53.3 54.0 55.6 56.0 50.6
Filipino 61.8 57.3 60.4 60.7 61.6 63.7 63.8 57.8
Hekasi 59.6 55.3 58.2 58.7 59.4 61.3 61.6 55.6
Total 58.7 54.5 57.3 57.7 58.6 60.6 60.8 55.0

Philippine Educational System: A
The principal reasons for this decline are:
the country is simply not investing enough in
the education system, and
the education establishment has been poorly

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Key Issues in Philippine Education
Quality:There was a decline in the quality of
the Philippine education, especially at the
elementary and secondary levels. For
example, the results of standard tests
conducted among elementary and high school
students, as well as in the National College of
Entrance Examination for college students,
were way below the target mean score.
Philippine Educational System: A
Key Issues in Philippine Education
Affordability: There is also a big disparity in
educational achievements across social
groups. For example, the socioeconomically
disadvantaged students have higher dropout
rates, especially in the elementary level. And
most of the freshmen students at the tertiary
level come from relatively well-off families.

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Key Issues in Philippine Education
Budget: The Philippine Constitution has
mandated the government to allocate the
highest proportion of its budget to education.
However, the Philippines still has one of the
lowest budget allocations to education among
the ASEAN countries.
Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Key Issues in Philippine Education
Mismatch: There is a large proportion of
"mismatch" between training and actual jobs.
This is the major problem at the tertiary level
and it is also the cause of the existence of a
large group of educated unemployed or

Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
The following are some of the reforms
Upgrade the teachers' salary scale. Teachers
have been underpaid; thus there is very little
incentive for most of them to take up advanced
Amend the current system of budgeting for
education across regions, which is based on
participation rates and units costs. This clearly
favors the more developed regions. There is a
need to provide more allocation to lagging
regions to narrow the disparity across regions.
Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Stop the current practice of subsidizing state universities
and colleges to enhance access. This may not be the
best way to promote equity. An expanded scholarship
program, giving more focus and priority to the poor,
maybe more equitable.
Get all the leaders in business and industry to become
actively involved in higher education; this is aimed at
addressing the mismatch problem. In addition, carry out
a selective admission policy, i.e., installing mechanisms
to reduce enrollment in oversubscribed courses and
promoting enrollment in undersubscribed ones.
Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Develop a rationalized apprenticeship
program with heavy inputs from the
private sector. Furthermore, transfer the
control of technical training to industry
groups which are more attuned to the
needs of business and industry.
Philippine Educational System:
A Situationer
Department of Education Report Card to the
Public School System (SY 2004-2005)
2003 National Research Coordination Office,
UP Diliman
Ultimate Questions in Education
Human Nature
Human Development
The Ultimate Nature of Things
The Cosmic Process
The Aims of Education
Good and Evil in Education
Human Nature
Is man unique?
Is there anything that sets him clearly
apart from the other animals?
Are human beings fully and without
remainder part of nature?
Are humans good or evil?
Active or passive?

Good and Evil in Human Nature
Man is essentially good
Man is essentially evil
Man is essentially both good and evil
Human nature is neutral
Sources of Evil in Man
The body
Demonic powers
Human Development
Granted that man has certain
characteristics, how does he get them?
Are they innate or learned through
By what means and from what source or
sources does his nature derive?
How can the development of person be so
directed as to maximize growth and
minimize decay?
Human Development
Is personality static or dynamic?
Does it make sense to speak of an
enduring, continuing, and permanent self?
If a person inevitably changes from one
moment to the next, is there any
justification for regarding him as the same
person from moment to moment?
The Ultimate Nature of Things
Are man and education special cases of or
particular manifestations of some more basic
Are they part of a larger system, and if so, what
is the character of that in which they
Is there some property or essence which all
things have in common?
Is there an ultimate nature which all the special
natures exemplify, some primordial process of
which each particular process is a special case?
The Aims of Education
The problem of aims is a problem of
What is of value?
Kinds of value:
Material value: support physical existence
Personal beauty
Social values: arise out of mans need for
association with other persons
The Aims of Education
Truth value: discerning relationships among
seemingly disconnected events
Moral: source of the feeling of obligation and
Esthetic values: appreciation of beauty
Spiritual or religious values: mans longing for
the infinite, for perfection, and for
Not exhaustive, independent or mutually
The Aims of Education
The aims of education depend upon the
kinds of values regarded as most
important for directing human
Means and ends?
Immediate, mediate, and ultimate aims?
Relative and absolute aims?
Variable and constant aims?
One or many aims?
Some General Aims of Education
Intensity and vividness of experience: fullness of
Security: material, social, intellectual, emotional,
moral, and religious
Variety: to increase the richness of the human
Intelligence: rational understanding
Activity: to move ahead, knowledge and emotion
put into action
Some General Aims of Education
Peace: unhurried serenity which rests upon a
basic confidence of settledness; to reach a state
of contentment with what on has and is
Power: to control things and people
Love: service, bringing satisfaction to others
Holiness: moral perfection and a quality of
exaltation or of transcendence which excites
feelings of reverence and wonder

Good and Evil in Education
What is evil?
By what standard?
Kinds of evil
Material: weakness, poverty, hunger, and
Social: conflict, disharmony, and frustration
within society, war, tyranny, divorce, and
Intellectual: error, ignorance, or illusion

Good and Evil in Education
Moral: sin, moral blindness
Esthetic: the ugly, the grotesque, the
discordant, the clumsy
Religious: faithlessness, blasphemy, idolatry,

Metaphysics, Knowledge, and
What is the knowledge that teachers seek
to provide to students?
What is truly and essentially real?
What do you believe are the real areas of
knowledge that should be included in the
Epistemology, Knowing, and
How do we arrive at our concepts and
ideas about reality?
How do you know about what you know?
What do you believe is the most
authoriative, true, and valuable way of
How should we teach?
What method of instruction?
Axiology, Values, and Character
What kind of character should education
What kind of ethical behavior is preferred?
How do we go about teaching art
appreciation in its various forms literary,
musical, dramatic, cinematic, and so on?
How should we go about character
How should curriculum and instruction be
The truth shall set you free.