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signal and system

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0 evaluări0% au considerat acest document util (0 voturi)

29 vizualizări28 paginisignal and system

© All Rights Reserved

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convolution of signals is discussed.

Convolution is the operation to obtain

response of a linear system to input x(t). The

output y(t) is given as a weighted

superposition of impulse responses, time

shifted by

Course Name: Signals and Systems Level: UG

Learning Objectives

After interacting with this Learning Object, the learner will be able to:

Explain the convolution of two continuous time signals

Definitions of the components/Keywords:

5

3

2

4

1

Convolution of two signals:

Let x(t) and h(t) are two continuous signals to be convolved.

The convolution of two signals is denoted by

which means

where t is the variable of integration.

Master Layout

5

3

2

4

1

**

22

2 1

t

f(t)

--22 1

2

t

g(t)

t

y(t)

0 2 3 -2

1

Signals taken to convolve

Output of the

convolution

Step 1:

1

5

3

2

4

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The first point in DT has to appear

before the figures.

Then the blue figure has to appear.

After that the red figure has to appear.

After the figures, the next point in DT

has to appear.

f(t) and g(t) are the two continuous signals to be convolved.

The convolution of the signals is denoted by

which means

where t is a dummy variable.

22

2 1

t

f(t) = 2

--22 1

2

t

g(t)= -t+1

Step 2:

1

5

3

2

4

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The figure in blue in fig. a has to

appear then its label should appear.

Then the red figure has to appear.

After that the labeling of red figure

has to appear.

In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has

to appear.

First two sentences in DT has to

appear with fig. a

The last sentence should appear with

fig. b.

The signal f(t ) is shown

The reversed version of g(t) i.e., g(-t ) is shown

The shifted version of g(-t) i.e., g(t-t) is shown

2

t

2

f(t)

1

-1 + t -2

g(t-t)

t

2

t

2

f(t)

1

-2

g(-t)

Fig. a Fig. b

-1

Step 3:

1

5

3

2

4

Calculation of y(t) in five stages

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The figure in blue has to appear then

its label should appear.

Then the red figure has to appear.

After that the labeling of red figure

has to appear.

In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has

to appear.

After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT

should appear.

The signal f(t ) is shown

The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown

Two functions do not overlap

Area under the product of the functions is zero

Stage - I : t < -2

2

t

2

f(t)

1

-1 + t -2

g(t-t)

t

Step 4:

1

5

3

2

4

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The figure in blue has to appear then

its label should appear.

Then the red figure has to appear.

After that the labeling of red figure

has to appear.

In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has

to appear.

After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT

should appear.

The signal f(t ) is shown

The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown

Part of g(t-t ) overlaps part of f(t )

Area under the product

Stage - II : -2 t < -1

2

t

2

f(t)

1

-1 + t -2

g(t-t)

t

Step 5:

1

5

3

2

4

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The figure in blue has to appear then

its label should appear.

Then the red figure has to appear.

After that the labeling of red figure

has to appear.

In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has

to appear.

After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT

should appear.

The signal f(t ) is shown

The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown

g(t-t ) completely overlaps f(t )

Area under the product

Stage - III : -1 t < 2

2

t

2

f(t)

1

-1 + t -2

g(t-t)

t

Step 6:

1

5

3

2

4

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The figure in blue has to appear then

its label should appear.

Then the red figure has to appear.

After that the labeling of red figure

has to appear.

In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has

to appear.

After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT

should appear.

The signal f(t ) is shown

The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown

Part of g(t-t ) overlaps part of f(t )

Area under the product

Stage - IV : 2 t < 3

2

t

f(t)

1

-1 + t -2

g(t-t)

t 2

Step 7:

1

5

3

2

4

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The figure in blue has to appear then

its label should appear.

Then the red figure has to appear.

After that the labeling of red figure

has to appear.

In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has

to appear.

After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT

should appear.

The signal f(t ) is shown

The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown

Two functions do not overlap

Area under the product of the functions is zero

Stage - V : t 3

2

t

2

f(t)

1

-1 + t -2

g(t-t)

t

Step 8:

1

5

3

2

4

Output of Convolution

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

The figure in green has to appear then

its label should appear.

In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has

to appear.

After the figure, the equations in DT

should appear .

The signal y(t) is shown

t

y(t)

0 2

3

-2

1

>

< s +

< s

< s

<

= =

3 for 0

3 2 for 9 6

2 1 for 1

1 2 for 2

2 for 0

) ( * ) ( ) (

2

2

t

t t t

t

t t t

t

t g t f t y

The four signals must be repeated under select for both f(t) and g(t)

Introduction

Credits

13

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1

-1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

The signal selected under f(t) must be shown

Introduction

Credits

14

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1 -1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

The signal selected under g(t) must be shown

Introduction

Credits

15

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1

-1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

The red figure is the shifted and reversed version of g(t) The slides 16-21 should be shown in a smooth fashion

Introduction

Credits

16

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1

-1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

Introduction

Credits

17

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1 -1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

Introduction

Credits

18

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1 -1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

Introduction

Credits

19

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1 -1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

Introduction

Credits

20

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1 -1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

Introduction

Credits

21

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Try it yourself

Interactivity:

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

+1

-1

-1

f(t ) and g(t-t )

f(t ) g(t-t )

+1

-1 -1

+1

Select Select

t

t

t

t t

f(t)

g(t)

+1 +1

+1

-1

The same procedure is done to the above given combination of signals

Introduction

Credits

22

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

+1

-1

*

*

+1

+1

-1

*

+1

-1

+1

-1

+1

-1

t

f(t)

+1

-1

t

f(t)

The same procedure is done to the above given combination of signals

Introduction

Credits

23

Definitions

Test your understanding

(questionnaire)

Lets Sum up (summary)

Want to know more

(Further Reading)

Analogy

Slide

1

Slide

3

Slide

24-26

Slide

28

Slide

27

Electrical Engineering

+1

-1

*

+1

+1 +1

*

Questionnaire

1. If the unit-impulse response of an LTI system and the input signal

both are rectangular pulses, then the output will be a

Answers: a) rectangular pulse b) triangular pulse

c) ramp function d) none of the above

2. Find Convolution

*

Answers: a) b)

1

5

2

4

3

(t-5) x(t)

5

5 5

Questionnaire

3. If impulse response and input signal both are unit step

responses, then the output will be

*

Answers: a) Triangular pulse b) Unit step function

c) Ramp function d) None of the above

4. The convolution integral is given by

i) ii)

Hint: let

Answers: a) i b) ii c) Both i and ii d) either i or ii

1

5

2

4

3

Questionnaire

5. If h(t) is a unit-step function and x(t) is a unit-ramp function, then

the output y(t) will be a

Answers:

a) step function b) ramp function

c) Triangular pulse d) Quadratic function

1

5

2

4

3

Links for further reading

Reference websites:

Books:

Signals & Systems Alan V. Oppenheim, Alan S. Willsky, S. Hamid

Nawab, PHI learning, Second edition.

Signals and Systems Simon Haykin, Barry Van Veen, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc.

Research papers:

Summary

The convolution operation is used to obtain the output of linear

time invariant system in response to an arbitrary input.

In continuous time, the representation of signals is taken to be

the weighted integrals of shifted unit impulses.

The convolution integral of two continuous signals is represented

as

where

The convolution integral provides a concise, mathematical way to

express the output of an LTI system based on an arbitrary

continuous-time input signal and the systems response.

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