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Continuous Time Convolution

In this animation, the continuous time


convolution of signals is discussed.
Convolution is the operation to obtain
response of a linear system to input x(t). The
output y(t) is given as a weighted
superposition of impulse responses, time
shifted by
Course Name: Signals and Systems Level: UG
Learning Objectives
After interacting with this Learning Object, the learner will be able to:
Explain the convolution of two continuous time signals
Definitions of the components/Keywords:
5
3
2
4
1
Convolution of two signals:

Let x(t) and h(t) are two continuous signals to be convolved.

The convolution of two signals is denoted by

which means

where t is the variable of integration.

Master Layout
5
3
2
4
1
**
22
2 1
t
f(t)
--22 1
2
t
g(t)
t
y(t)
0 2 3 -2
1
Signals taken to convolve
Output of the
convolution
Step 1:
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2
4

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
The first point in DT has to appear
before the figures.
Then the blue figure has to appear.
After that the red figure has to appear.
After the figures, the next point in DT
has to appear.

f(t) and g(t) are the two continuous signals to be convolved.
The convolution of the signals is denoted by

which means

where t is a dummy variable.
22
2 1
t
f(t) = 2
--22 1
2
t
g(t)= -t+1
Step 2:
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4
Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
The figure in blue in fig. a has to
appear then its label should appear.
Then the red figure has to appear.
After that the labeling of red figure
has to appear.
In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has
to appear.
First two sentences in DT has to
appear with fig. a
The last sentence should appear with
fig. b.


The signal f(t ) is shown
The reversed version of g(t) i.e., g(-t ) is shown
The shifted version of g(-t) i.e., g(t-t) is shown
2
t
2
f(t)
1
-1 + t -2
g(t-t)
t
2
t
2
f(t)
1
-2
g(-t)
Fig. a Fig. b
-1
Step 3:
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Calculation of y(t) in five stages
Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
The figure in blue has to appear then
its label should appear.
Then the red figure has to appear.
After that the labeling of red figure
has to appear.
In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has
to appear.
After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT
should appear.


The signal f(t ) is shown
The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown
Two functions do not overlap
Area under the product of the functions is zero




Stage - I : t < -2
2
t
2
f(t)
1
-1 + t -2
g(t-t)
t
Step 4:
1
5
3
2
4
Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
The figure in blue has to appear then
its label should appear.
Then the red figure has to appear.
After that the labeling of red figure
has to appear.
In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has
to appear.
After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT
should appear.


The signal f(t ) is shown
The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown
Part of g(t-t ) overlaps part of f(t )
Area under the product




Stage - II : -2 t < -1
2
t
2
f(t)
1
-1 + t -2
g(t-t)
t
Step 5:
1
5
3
2
4
Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
The figure in blue has to appear then
its label should appear.
Then the red figure has to appear.
After that the labeling of red figure
has to appear.
In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has
to appear.
After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT
should appear.


The signal f(t ) is shown
The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown
g(t-t ) completely overlaps f(t )
Area under the product




Stage - III : -1 t < 2
2
t
2
f(t)
1
-1 + t -2
g(t-t)
t
Step 6:
1
5
3
2
4
Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
The figure in blue has to appear then
its label should appear.
Then the red figure has to appear.
After that the labeling of red figure
has to appear.
In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has
to appear.
After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT
should appear.


The signal f(t ) is shown
The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown
Part of g(t-t ) overlaps part of f(t )
Area under the product




Stage - IV : 2 t < 3
2
t
f(t)
1
-1 + t -2
g(t-t)
t 2
Step 7:
1
5
3
2
4
Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
The figure in blue has to appear then
its label should appear.
Then the red figure has to appear.
After that the labeling of red figure
has to appear.
In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has
to appear.
After the figures, the 3, 4 lines in DT
should appear.


The signal f(t ) is shown
The reversal and shifted version of g(t) i.e., g(t-t ) is shown
Two functions do not overlap
Area under the product of the functions is zero




Stage - V : t 3
2
t
2
f(t)
1
-1 + t -2
g(t-t)
t
Step 8:
1
5
3
2
4
Output of Convolution
Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)
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its label should appear.
In parallel to the fig. the text in DT has
to appear.
After the figure, the equations in DT
should appear .


The signal y(t) is shown



t
y(t)
0 2
3
-2
1

>
< s +
< s
< s
<
= =
3 for 0
3 2 for 9 6
2 1 for 1
1 2 for 2
2 for 0
) ( * ) ( ) (
2
2
t
t t t
t
t t t
t
t g t f t y
The four signals must be repeated under select for both f(t) and g(t)
Introduction
Credits
13
Definitions
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Interactivity:
Analogy
Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
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28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1
-1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
The signal selected under f(t) must be shown
Introduction
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14
Definitions
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Slide
1
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3
Slide
24-26
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28
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27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1 -1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
The signal selected under g(t) must be shown
Introduction
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Definitions
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Interactivity:
Analogy
Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1
-1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
The red figure is the shifted and reversed version of g(t) The slides 16-21 should be shown in a smooth fashion
Introduction
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Interactivity:
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Slide
1
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3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1
-1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
Introduction
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17
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Slide
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3
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24-26
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28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1 -1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
Introduction
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18
Definitions
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Interactivity:
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Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1 -1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
Introduction
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19
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Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1 -1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
Introduction
Credits
20
Definitions
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(questionnaire)
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Interactivity:
Analogy
Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1 -1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
Introduction
Credits
21
Definitions
Test your understanding
(questionnaire)
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Want to know more
(Further Reading)
Try it yourself
Interactivity:
Analogy
Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
+1
-1
-1
f(t ) and g(t-t )
f(t ) g(t-t )

+1
-1 -1
+1
Select Select
t
t
t
t t
f(t)
g(t)
+1 +1
+1
-1
The same procedure is done to the above given combination of signals
Introduction
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22
Definitions
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(questionnaire)
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(Further Reading)
Analogy
Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
+1
-1
*
*
+1
+1
-1
*
+1
-1
+1
-1
+1
-1
t
f(t)
+1
-1
t
f(t)
The same procedure is done to the above given combination of signals
Introduction
Credits
23
Definitions
Test your understanding
(questionnaire)
Lets Sum up (summary)
Want to know more
(Further Reading)
Analogy
Slide
1
Slide
3
Slide
24-26
Slide
28
Slide
27
Electrical Engineering
+1
-1
*
+1
+1 +1
*
Questionnaire
1. If the unit-impulse response of an LTI system and the input signal
both are rectangular pulses, then the output will be a
Answers: a) rectangular pulse b) triangular pulse
c) ramp function d) none of the above

2. Find Convolution
*
Answers: a) b)







1
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2
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3
(t-5) x(t)
5
5 5
Questionnaire

3. If impulse response and input signal both are unit step
responses, then the output will be
*

Answers: a) Triangular pulse b) Unit step function
c) Ramp function d) None of the above

4. The convolution integral is given by
i) ii)
Hint: let
Answers: a) i b) ii c) Both i and ii d) either i or ii
1
5
2
4
3
Questionnaire

5. If h(t) is a unit-step function and x(t) is a unit-ramp function, then
the output y(t) will be a
Answers:
a) step function b) ramp function
c) Triangular pulse d) Quadratic function
1
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2
4
3
Links for further reading
Reference websites:
Books:
Signals & Systems Alan V. Oppenheim, Alan S. Willsky, S. Hamid
Nawab, PHI learning, Second edition.
Signals and Systems Simon Haykin, Barry Van Veen, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc.
Research papers:
Summary
The convolution operation is used to obtain the output of linear
time invariant system in response to an arbitrary input.
In continuous time, the representation of signals is taken to be
the weighted integrals of shifted unit impulses.
The convolution integral of two continuous signals is represented
as


where

The convolution integral provides a concise, mathematical way to
express the output of an LTI system based on an arbitrary
continuous-time input signal and the systems response.