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Power System Operation and Control

Short history of blackouts of the world, Structure of Power System
control, Computer control of power system, SCADA system, Distributed
control systems, Power control systems in Pakistan.
Active power and frequency control
Fundamentals of Turbine speed governing system, Governor with speed-
droop characteristics, Load sharing between parallel operating
generators, Control of generating unit power output, Power flow control
by phase shifting transformers
Automatic Generation Control
Fundamentals of Automatic generation control (AGC), Automatic
generation control in an isolated power systems and in two-area
systems, AGC in systems with more than two areas, Performance of
AGC under normal and abnormal conditions, Implementation of AGC,
Reactive power and voltage control
Fundamental concepts, Production and absorption of reactive power,
Methods of voltage control
Economic Dispatch and Optimization
Optimization Fundamentals, classification of optimization problems,
Maintenance optimization, Sensitivity analysis optimal system operation
and control Thermal system economic dispatch with and without network
losses, Hydrothermal scheduling, Economic of Multi-area interconnection,
concept of wheeling, introduction of unit commitment.
Power System Operation and Control (contd.)
Power System Reliability
Concept, Importance, Technical and Economic Aspects, Reliability of
Series and Parallel System, Reliability Planning. Reliability Assessment
Techniques, Basic Requirements For Reliability of Power System,
power system security, System monitoring, contingency analysis, Power
system state classification, security control.
Power System Stability and control by P.Kundur
Power Generation, Operation, and Control by A. J. Woods & F.Wollenberg
Optimization of power system operation by Jizhong Zhu
Objectives of
Power System Operation and Control
To meet continually changing load demand
Adequate spinning power reserve
Minimum environmental pollution
Minimum cost of energy
The quality of power supply:
(a) constancy of frequency
(b) constancy of voltage; and
(c) level of reliability
Power Quality Considerations

Frequency Regulation: System frequency,
must remain within its operational range
< f(t) < f
49.5 Hz < f(t) < 50.5 Hz

Voltage Regulation: Bus voltages must
remain within their operational limits
< V(t) < V

0.95 pu < V(t) < 1.05 pu
Overview of Power System
Importance of System Operation and Control
Following functions/aspects of Power System
are very important:
1. Stability and Security must be maintained.
2. Protection of system from any damage.
3. System must operate Efficiently and Economical.
4. All system functions and major equipments are monitored,
evaluated and controlled.
5. Future demand prediction and establish favorable
trade conditions between utilities.
These functions require the use of
sophisticated algorithms/software that
optimize the operation of the power system.