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EARTHWORK
Masterplan, Design and Authoritys Requirement

I r. Abdul Aziz Abas P.Eng, C.PEng, I nt.PE
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EARTHWORK PREFACE
As a module of the Integrated Design Project course for the Bachelor of
Civil Engineering programme, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah
Alam

This program provides basic overview of all aspects of Earthwork
planning and design, guidelines, legislative and regulatory requirements
Preparation for life
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EARTHWORK PREFACE
UNDERSTANDING the subject of Civil Engineering in wider perspective,
inter-relation with other subjects influencing the performance of Engineering
works and challenges.
Benefit
ACQUIRRING cutting edge practical design knowledge & skills that last
forever in the world of ever-changing infrastructural engineering.
GAINING LEVERAGE by demonstrating knowledge of engineering in a
multi-disciplinary context.

DEVELOPING your engineering knowledge significantly and permanently.
PROVIDING your dashing factor (distinguish factor) for better chance of
employment upon graduation.
EXPAND your employment versatility in an ever-changing marketplace.
WINNING at the office and in daily job with the power of practical skill.
ADVANCING your career as an Engineer.
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1
INTRODUCTION
EARTHWORK
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EARTHWORK INTRODUCTION
Earthworks are engineering works created through
the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed
rock.
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Definition of Earthwork
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Purpose of Earthwork
EARTHWORK INTRODUCTION
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To obtain balance cut & fill Economical & Practical Design
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Purpose of Earthwork
EARTHWORK INTRODUCTION
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To obtain balance cut & fill Economical & Practical Design
Cut
Fill
Cut
Cut
Fill
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Masterplan & Design
Guiding Principle
EARTHWORK
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EARTHWORK
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MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE
To establish the overall earthworks for the viability of the project
and to assist on planning of landuse, compliance with prevailing
guidelines and laws.

Objectives
Enhance Early Scoping
Minimize Scope Changes
Provide base platforms & Layout Plan
Costs Plan
Reduce Conflicts/ Disputes
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EARTHWORK
Controlled Earthwork
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Typical Earthwork Development Compliance
Slopes turfed
Silt trap / rubbish trap
Centralised facility
MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE
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EARTHWORK
Uncontrolled Earthwork
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Typical Earthwork Development Non-Compliance
Earth not graded
No sediment / silt trap
MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE
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Development Masterplan
Ggreen / Forest
Institution
Industrial
Residential
Existing Development
Commercial
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Development Landuse determined
by Masterplanner

Engineer to advise on platform &
drainage pattern and other aspects
of engineering

Engineer to balance cut & fill
design (wherever possible)

Engineer to minimise import earth

Engineer to establish
Term Of Reference

Engineer to establish Specification

Engineer to obtain approvals

Engineer to supervise construction
EARTHWORK
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Typical Development Masterplan
Layout
MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE
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EARTHWORK
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Infrastructure Influencing Earthwork Design
Detention Pond 3% to 5% of area
MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE
Main Stream
DRAINAGE SYSTEM
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EARTHWORK
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Infrastructure Influencing Earthwork Design
MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE
- Generally flat area with only
prominent highest ground

-Gravity Flow Water Supply
is most possible
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
ROAD SYSTEM - Max 9% of road gradient
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Preliminary Design
EARTHWORK
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Confirm Site Location
EARTHWORK PRELIMINARY DESIGN
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Typical Cadestral Plan Obtained from Land Survey Department
Identification
of correct site &
Project Boundary
CRUCIAL
Obtain CP
from Survey
Dept.
Check lot
numbers
Check
boundaries
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Obtaining Confirmed Requirements & Data
EARTHWORK
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Approved Development Layout Masterplan

Development Order

Topographical Survey

Highest Flood Level

Soil Investigation

Local Guidelines
Architect or Town Planner / JPBD

Local Council

Land Surveyor

DID

Geotechnical Engineer

Local Council / Authority / Agency

PRELIMINARY DESIGN
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Site Reconnaissance
EARTHWORK
Mandatory site visit

To confirm site location and development
boundaries

To familiarize with the site geographical
condition

To identify adjacent development, Access,
etc.

To observe & assess site constraints

To have general idea of existing & future
design system

To gather information about flooding
history
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PRELIMINARY DESIGN
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Assess Site Constraints / Issues
Sg. Balok at Coastal Road
EARTHWORK
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Low laying areas &
Flooding issue
Raise platform
or earth bunding?
Main river system, No pollution permitted
Control flows from development
Tidal influence
Swampy area
Soft soil
PRELIMINARY DESIGN
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Objectives
Sg. Balok at Coastal Road
EARTHWORK
SOIL INVESTIGATION
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To identify general sub-soil profile i.e. suitability


To provide detail picture of soil stratigraphy & geological
settings i.e. extend of soft & hard underlayings, ground water
To obtaining representative geotechnical parameters of
various sub-soil strata for engineering design i.e. N-Values
PRELIMINARY DESIGN
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Detail Design
EARTHWORK
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Design Guiding Principles
Sg. Balok at Coastal Road
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Integrate the design platform levels with existing developments.

Design platform levels shall tie in with the roads.

All Slope formations shall be kept within the plot boundaries.

Achieve an almost balanced cut and fill volume within the development

Establishing preliminary platform levels based on development
scheme requirements, infrastructure and utilities.
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Criteria

Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan

Propose Platform Levels

Compute Volume of Cut & Fill

Propose Retaining Structure
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan

Propose Platform Levels

Compute Volume of Cut & Fill

Propose Retaining Structure
Design Criteria
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Design Criteria
Sg. Balok at Coastal Road
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Clearing, grubbing, stripping top soil, cut & fill,
compact, trimming, turfing, soil test for FGL

Embankment in swamp or soft ground, Height
1.5m, cross-slopes 1V : 3H





Gradient for cut slope, 1 : 1.2





Gradient for fill slope, 1 : 2





Height of slopes, 3m intervals with toe, berm &
intercepting drains

Layers of 300mm intervals, compacted to 95%
(Cohesive soil) or
100% (Cohesionless soil) of max Dry Density.
Ref BS1377 4.5kg rammer method


Inteceptor
Berm
Toe
3m
3m
1
3
1
1.2
1
2
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Design Options For Cut Slopes
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Options For Fill Slopes
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Criteria



Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan

Propose Platform Levels

Compute Volume of Cut & Fill

Balancing Cut & Fill Volume
Study Project Layout (Development Plan)
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Study Project Layout (Development Plan)
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Criteria

Study Project Layout (Development Plan)




Propose Platform Levels

Compute Volume of Cut & Fill

Propose Retaining Structure
Study Project Survey Drawing In
Conjunction With Dev Plan

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Assessment of Available Survey Information
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Slopes direction
Slopes direction
Slopes direction
Potential high
Ground for Water
Supply Tank
Swampy
+2m to 3m
Hilly 80m
Existing
+5m to 9m
Existing
+5.5m
Existing
+3m
Cut
Fill
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Criteria

Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan



Compute Volume of Cut & Fill

Propose Retaining Structure
Propose Platform Levels
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Purpose of Platform
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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To avoid minor & major floods

To protect safety of lives & properties

To provide sufficient gradient for Sewerage & Drainage

To avoid unnecessary earthwork

Good Engineering Practice & Planning

Increase value of property

Peace in mind

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Conceptual Platform
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Platform Level to be above
Highest Flood Level (HFL) or
Major Flood Level
Major Flood Level in 100 years
Flood Cycle
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Assessment of Minimum Platform Level
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Say, HFL = 2.2 m ODL
Freeboard = 1.0m
Drainage Gradient = 1.5m

Recommended Min. Platform Level = 4.7m ODL
Highest Flood Level (JPS record or ever known)
Freeboard = +1m
Highest Flood Level = +2.2m ODL
Water body
Proposed Platform Level Formation
Min.
Max.
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Cut area
Fill area
Notes:
1. All levels are in meter O.D.L
Min Platform Level = 4.7m
Follow drainage
pattern
Proposed Platform Levels
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Highest Platform Level
Determined by Cut & Balance
Analysis
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Notes:
1. All levels are in meter O.D.L
Proposed Platform Levels
Typical Cross-Sections
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Proposed Platform Levels
Typical Building Platforms
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Criteria

Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan

Propose Platform Levels



Propose Retaining Structure

Compute Volume of Cut & Fill
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Principle

To obtain balance cut & Fill (If possible)

Too much access cut material Difficult to dispose

Too much fill material - Difficult to obtain borrow source & Cost

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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Methods

Grid System Method

Large area or excavation

Using area method calculation

Land development

Computer software triangulation
interpolation (more accurate &
ease of modeling)

Require spot levels survey



Cross-section Method

Longitudinal strip profile

Used for road, pipeline, drainage
constructions

Require strip survey


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EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Proposed Platform Levels
Volume of Cut & Fill
A

B

C

D

E

F
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
GRID SYSTEM METHOD
To obtain large area of excavation

Square rectangular and levels at
each cross-sections established

Establish datum

Calculate volume of existing ground

Calculate volume of proposed platform

Difference s constitute cut or fill volume
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EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Proposed Platform Levels
Methodology Volume of Cut & Fill
A

B

C

D

E

F
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Average areas of column grids 1 & 2
Average areas of row grids A & B
X
X
Existing levels
& proposed levels
Based on spots &
interpolation
X = 10m for accuracy (undulating areas)
X = 5m gives accurate figures (undulating areas)
X 10m for flat areas
X 50m for large area / Masterplan purposes
Typical assumption
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EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Proposed Platform Levels
Volume of Cut & Fill
Grid System
1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
A E 10 10 10 8 8 5 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
P 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
10 C 250 175 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F 0 0 0 -212.5 -275 -275 -300 -250 -200
P 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
E 10 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
E 10 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
P 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
10 C 325 300 212.5 0 0 0 0 0 0
F 0 0 0 -25 -250 -250 -247.5 -245 -195
P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
E 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 4 4 4
E 10 10 19 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 4 4 4
P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
10 C 325 500 225 50 0 0 0 0 0
F 0 0 0 0 -150 -150 -115 -105 -80
P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
E 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
E 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
10 C 250 162.5 137.5 75 25 0 0 30 30
F 0 0 0 0 0 0 -10 0 0
P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
E 9 8 8 7.5 7.5 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
E 9 8 8 7.5 7.5 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
10 C 225 162.5 137.5 137.5 162.5 100 15 30 30
F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5.5 5.5 5 5 5 5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
F E 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
All dimensions are in meters Total Area = Acres
Total Cut = CuM
Spoil @ 20% = CuM
Available Fill = CuM
Total Fill = CuM
To import Fill = CuM
Access Cut = CuM
E
2 3 4 5 8 9
B
C
D
6 7
Nil
50.02
4,072.50
814.50
3,258.00
3,335.00
77.00
Legend

E Existing
P Proposed
C Cut
F Fill
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Design Criteria

Study Project Layout (Development Plan)

Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan

Propose Platform Levels

Compute Volume of Cut & Fill



Propose Retaining Structure
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Purpose of Earth Retaining Structure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Active
Wedge
Original
Ground
Surface
Backfill
To stabilise engineering slopes
Active
Wedge
Original
Ground
Surface
Backfill
To provide safety and protect lives & properties
To protect engineering slopes collapses & erosion
To provide split of levels at tight earthwork
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Design Procedure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Earth Retaining Structure
Standards Used in Design
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Split Levels
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Earth Retaining Structure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Earth Retaining Structure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Earth Retaining Structure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Earth Retaining Structure
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Earth Retaining Structure Typical Detail
EARTHWORK DETAIL DESIGN
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Authority
Compliance & Approvals
EARTHWORK
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Governing Law
EARTHWORK AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals
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Earthworks regulation and approval is under the jurisdiction of Local Council.
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Submission Checklist











Copy of Letter of Appointment As Consulting Engineer
Copy of D.O. Letter from Planning Dept.
Copy of Land Title / S & P Agreement
Earthwork Plan (duly endorsed by PE) / Erosion & Sedimentation
Control Plan (ESCP)
Copy of Approved D.O. Plan / Development Layout by Architect
Copy of Quit Rent of Current Year
Site Photos of present condition
Copy of Approval Letter From JKR For Road System
Or Prove Of Submission
Copy of Approval Letter From JPS For Drainage System
Or Prove Of Submission
Copy of Approval Letter of Main Infra / Main Earthwork (if app.)
Copy of Geological Mapping (for hill dev) & Erosion Control Plan
Report
EARTHWORK
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AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals
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Submission Process Flow
EARTHWORK
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SUBMITTING
PERSON
JPS
JKR
PTG
LC
Approval
No
Yes
OSC One Stop Centre
AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals
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Construction
EARTHWORK
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Earthwork Construction

EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Identification of project site

Planning of temporary drainage system

Access and wash through location

Detention ponds / silt traps

Project office & facility

Construction of Hoarding

Observe all laws pertaining to construction

Plan, design, manage all temporary works

Earthwork construction & supervision
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Earthwork Construction

EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Review costruction
programme

Control & Monitor
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Quality Control

EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION

General Instruction
Construction Drawings
Specifications Contract Document
Bills of Quantities
Compliance to Authoritys requirement



Compaction 95% max of dry density @ BS 1377
Building footprints, roads & services corridor, runways, etc

Compaction 75%
Building footprints but to allow Suspended Floor slab design
Area not subject to buildings construction i.e fields, landscape, etc

Each layer 200mm thick

For road sub-base, soaked CBR value 30 for 95% consolidation


Site Supervision to comply ;
July 2009
Site Clearing Work
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
In-land Development
Low Land Earthwork Platforming
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Mandatory Hoarding
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Installation of Mandatory Paver Blocks at Entrance of Construction Site
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Mandatory Wash Through
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Installation of Geosynthetic Materials For Earthwork in Soft Ground
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Cut Slopes Formation With Closed Turf
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
Installation of Geomembrane to prevent ground contamination @ solid waste disposal
Urban Construction - Completed Earthwork Being CloseTurfed Final Stage
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EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
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Problems Associated With Earthwork
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High tide
Sinkhole
Slope Failure
EARTHWORK
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CONSTRUCTION
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Post Construction Issuance of Certificate of Completion & Compliance
EARTHWORK
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Inspection & As-Built Documents

EARTHWORK
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POST - CONSTRUCTION
Engineer to carry out confirmatory Soil Investigation to verify full
compliance i.e. Compaction, Soil Stabilization, etc.

Land Surveyor to survey As-Built earthworks platforms to verify full
compliance pertaining to FGL or PL.

Land Surveyor & Engineer to certify As-Built survey drawings

Engineer Review Construction Drawings & Correct to As-Built Drawings

Engineer updating As-Built information not covered i.e. Authoritys
requirement not spelt out in Construction Drawings, V.O.

Engineer to ensure all mandatory dues to Authority are complied

Engineer arranged mandatory inspections with JPS, JKR, LC, etc
to facilitate handing over works & recommendation for CCC

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CCC Process Flow

EARTHWORK
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POST - CONSTRUCTION
SUBMITTING
PERSON (SP)
JPS
JKR
PTG
LC
Recommendation
No
Yes
PSP Issue CCC
PSP Principal Submitting Person
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Post - CCC

EARTHWORK
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POST - CONSTRUCTION
Issue Certificate Of Completion & Compliance

Defects Liability Period. Generally 1 to 1.5 years

Issue Certificate of Completion After Defects

Final Account

Total Completion of Project



Thank You
Terima Kasih
77 July 2009
Questions & Answers
78 July 2009
Ir.Aziz@yahoo.com