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PRELIMINARY DISSERTATION

On
DESIGN OF FLAT SLAB & ITS COMPARISION
WITH POST-TENSIONED FLAT SLAB
Prepared by :-
Bhadresh Vaghasiya :- 201304101310003
M.Tech.Civil(Structure)
C.G.P.I.T., MALIBA CAMPUS,
UKA TARSADIA UNIVERSITY, BARDOLI
Guided by :-
Prof. Hiten Kheni

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CONTENTS :-
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
LITERATURE REVIEWS
REFERENCES
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-INTRODUCTION :-
FLAT SLAB :-
-Although the introduction of Reinforced Concrete
flat slab floors is a significant advancement in the
building technology, historical literature on their
development is ambiguous. Up to 1910- 1911 slab,
beam and girder system reigned supreme but at
this time the girderless floors sometimes called as
Mushroom slab, which is also known as flat slab
begin to build.
-Claud A. P. Turner was one of the early advocates
of flat slab system known as mushroom system.
About 1908, flat slab began and recognized as
acceptable floor system.
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-Flat slabs are being used mainly in office
buildings due to reduced formwork cost, fast
excavation, and easy installation. Flat slab system
possesses many advantages in terms of
architectural flexibility, use of space, easier
formwork, and shorter construction time.
NECESSITY OF FLAT SLABS
-Architectural demand for better illumination,
lesser fire resistance of sharp corners present in
the form of beams, increase in the formwork
cost, optimum use of space leads to the new
concept in the field of structural engineering as
Reinforced concrete flat slabs.
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POST-TENSIONING:-
-One of the key aspects of successful planning
is the constructability of the building. This is of
paramount importance for the success of the
project since constructability most markedly
affects the time to completion of a turn-key
project and thus the final cost to the owner.
-If we see the total cost of the building, only
the structural cost is about 30 to 50% of the
total construction cost and on the other hand
more than half of the structural cost is labour
cost, related mainly to formwork.
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-These considerations demonstrate that the
optimization of the floor framing with regard to
weight, structural depth and constructability goes
a long way towards successful planning.
-As the floor system plays an important role in
the overall cost of a building, a post-tensioned
floor system is invented which reduces the time
for the construction and finally the cost of the
structure.
-In some countries, including the U.S., Australia,
South Africa, Thailand and India, a great number
of large buildings have been successfully
constructed using post-tensioned floors.
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-The most important advantages offered by post-tensioning
systems are as follows -
By comparison with reinforced concrete, a considerable saving
in concrete and steel
Smaller deflections compared to with steel and reinforced
concrete structures.
Good crack behavior and therefore permanent protection of
the steel against corrosion.
Almost unchanged serviceability even after considerable
overload
High fatigue strength
Post-tensioning usually balances most of the permanent loads
thus significantly reducing deflections and tensile stresses.
The stress provided by post-tensioning may prevent tensile
stresses causing the floor to crack.
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-OBJECTIVES :-
To understand the flat slab structures
To understand the Post-tensioning methods
To analyse & design the flat slab
To analyse & design the PT-flat slab
Comparision of results between flat slab & PT-
flat slab
Cost comparison between flat slab & PT-flat
slab
Graphical representation for cost comparision
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- LITERATURE SURVEY -
General:-
-Literature survey is carried out to familiar with
the amount of work done in this area throughout the
world. The survey gives ideas about the extent of work
to be carried out during project. It helps in framing the
scope of work.
-It also helps in deciding the line of action of
work. It generates the clear vision of the work and gives
the overall scenario of it. During this survey many new
things, concepts, and ideas will emerge which improve
the clarity of the topic. The literature is summarized as
below.
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LITERATURE REVIEWS:-
- H.S. Kim and D. G. Lee discussed merits
and demerits of conventional methods of
analysis of flat slabs such as Equivalent frame
method and Finite Element Method.
The author introduces the new and
efficient method of analysis which is known as
analysis of flat slabs by using super elements
which is developed by using fictitious beams.
This method significantly reduces the
computational time and memory required for
analysis as compared to conventional methods.
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LITERATURE REVIEWS:-
- D.A. Gasparini gives the contribution made
by C.A.P. Turner towards development of reinforced
concrete flat slab from 1905 to 1910 in the United
States.
Turner disclosed his flat slab system which
includes features such as four way reinforcement
and shear head with a diameter of approximately
one half of span, which he referred as Mushroom
system.
Mushroom system has been applied to
buildings of all kinds and height up to 12 storey
without single case of collapse or accident. Turner
also applied his flat slab system to bridges.
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LITERATURE REVIEWS:-
- K. Pilakoutas and X. Li states properly designed
shear reinforcement can prevent brittle punching failure
and increase the strength and ductility of the slab column
connection.
The author had introduced the new concept of
shear reinforcement called as Shear band system. This
system consists of steel strip punched with holes to
enhance the bond strength.Different forms of shear
reinforcement had been provided in slabs.
Author concluded that vertical shear reinforcement
in slab performed better than inclined shear
reinforcement. Author also examined that ACI 318 code is
more conservative than BS 8110 for calculating shear in
reinforced concrete slab.
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LITERATURE REVIEWS:-
- Y. H. Luo, A. Durrani and J. Conte presents
the analytical approach to assess the vulnerability
of reinforced concrete flat slab buildings subjected
to earthquakes and the analysis was carried out for
typical 3 and 10 storey flat slab building in which
the detailing is made as per older flat slab buildings.
Author concluded that low probability of
failure affirms the safety of those buildings under
pure gravity loads while under seismic loading
probability of punching failure increased with
increasing expected Peak Ground Acceleration and
number of storey in buildings.
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REFERENCES :-
C.A.P.Turner, Development of Reinforced concrete Flat slabs, 1905-1909, Journal of
Structural Engineering (ASCE), October 2002.
Kierdrof, Alexander, Early Mushroom slab construction in Switzerland, Russan and the
U.S.A.,second international congress on construction history, Cambridge Uni.
H. S. Kim and D.G. Lee, Efficient analysis of flat slab subjected to lateral loads, Journal of
Structural Engineering, October 2005, pp. 251- 263.
D.A. Gaspirini, Contributions of C.A.P. turner to Development of reinforced concrete flat
slab, Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 128, No.10,october 2002, ASCE, pp. 1243-
1252.
K. Pilakoutas and X. Li, Alternative shear reinforcement for reinforced concrete flat slab,
Journal of Structural Engineering,vol.129, No.9, September 2003, ASCE, pp. 1164- 1172.
Y.H. Luo, A. Durani and J. Conte, Seismic reliability assessment of R.C. flat slab buildings
Journal of Structural Engineering, vol.121, No.10, October 1995, ASCE, pp.1522- 1530
Amy Reineke Trygestad, Post-Tensioning Opening for Two-Way Flat Plate Construction,
Portland Cement Association, October 2005.
Post-Tensioned Concrete Floors in Multi-storey Buildings - By A. M. Stevenson.
Post-Tensioned Slabs Published by VSL International Ltd. (4.2 VSL report series).
Post-Tensioned in Buildings Published by VSL International Ltd. (4.1 VSL report series).
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THANK YOU
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