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Comparison of traditional and functional denim

real life experience

(left traditional denim and right functional denim)
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The Effect of Moisture and Finishing on
Thermal Comfort and Selected Mechanical
Properties of Denims with a Portion of
Synthetic Fibres

Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed Mangat
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Author: Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed Mangat
Fields of doctoral studies: Textile Evaluation
Time of study : Continuous
Department: Textile Evaluation
Supervisor: Prof. Lubo Hes PhD., DSc.
Supervisor Specialist: Prof. Ji Militk, PhD.

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First objective of this study was to develop a model for the
prediction of thermal resistance of fabric made by using different
types of fibres under wet conditions.
Second target was to manufacture denim able to provide better
thermal and sensorial comfort under wet conditions. For this
purpose, 180 denim samples were produced and more than 3000
different tests were carried on ALAMBETA, PERMETEST, KES 4,
Moisture Management Tester, UNIEG for bending force, ATLAS
for Air Permeability Tester and DATA COLOR.
Results show that thermal resistance prediction model has a
substantial agreement with actual values. Considering the outcome
of the study, I can suggest this model for the use of thermal
resistance prediction under dynamic wet conditions of fabric made
by using different yarns.
Moreover, denim made by using spun polypropylene as weft yarn
provides better thermal and sensorial comfort to wearers under
dynamic wet conditions.

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Parts of Presentation
Part one
Description of objective and current state of issue,
developing of framework and model for thermal resistance
Part two
Sample development, testing and evaluation of results
Part three
Development of functional denim and discussion about
merits and demerits, summary and future research
Part four
Observation of reviewers and Explanations

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Subject Matter and Objective Of Work

Development of a model to predict thermal resistance of
fabric under dynamic wet conditions

Investigation of changes in thermal parameters
(conductivity, absorbtivity, resistance) and sensorial
behavior of 180 denim samples by doing objective and
subjective evaluation

Development of a denim which should remain dry and
warm under dynamic wet conditions by doing scientific
analysis with the help of eight most modern testing

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Thermal conductivity
Many people tried to develop models to predict
thermal conductivity under steady state conditions;
Al Sulaiman, Crow, Militky, Takahasahi and
Following people tried to develop models under
wet conditions to predict thermal conductivity:
Hes, Haghi,

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Thermal resistance prediction model
Under dry conditions:
One model by Fahmy and Slater (1973), they used
loss of sound energy as an indicator of thermal
It has only R square value 0.29

Air velocity as function of angle proved by
[Andrea Halasova1, Zdenek Kus1, Antonin
Havelka1, Viera Glombikova 1]
It can be concluded that:
Change of angle change of air flow
change of sound velocity loss change in
thermal resistance

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I could not find any model for the
prediction of thermal resistance under
dynamic wet conditions of fabric
having different types of yarn
This study is an effort to develop a
model able to predict thermal
resistance of fabric made by using
different types of yarn under dynamic
wet conditions

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Fabric and Water
Fabric under wet conditions is composed of:

Fibres (polymers)
Air (layers)
Water (layers)

Thermal conductivity and thermal resistance of
each matter is different.

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Sum of thermal resistance of different
substances in fabric
Thermal resistance in steady state conditions:


Where R-thermal resistance [m
], h is thickness
of the slab [m], - thermal conductivity [m
W] of
the material, q is heat flow Wm
, K is temperature

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R =

Sum of Thermal Resistances by Using
Electric Resistance Analogy

In case of fabric, I do not have any information about the
configuration of water, fibre and air:

They may be: Parallel or Series

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Complexity of Thermal Resistance
Decrease in the resistance due to increase in water
Decrease in thermal resistance due to decrease in
Air is partially removed when fabric starts taking
water content.
Continuous evaporation, heat loss .
Mechanical attachment and inside penetration of water
Difficult to find exact configuration of air, water and
fibres (polymers)

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Two Options
Keep two independent variables; moisture
and thickness and thermal resistance
dependent variable

Keep one independent variable (moisture)
and keep thickness constant, by taking
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I Applied
I did in both way and found substantial agreement with
actual values for denim made of 100% cotton

This approach gave results for denim made of 100%
cotton (paper published on this topic).

However, for denim having more than one type of
fibers was not possible and need very deep calculation.
Matlab was also used but could not find better results

Finally, I used the second approach and kept thickness

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Thermal Resistance Prediction Model
Moreover, I used following approaches:

Unit cell is calculated yarn diameter and area
covered by warp and weft problem of yarn,
compactness, particularly in case of filament and
blend of cotton and PET/PP.
For this purpose I endeavoured to use Neckar
Difficult to find yarn diameter having more than
70 filament and texture (mechanical and air)
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Porosity of fabric to measure portion of air gap.
Simulation of air, water and fibre.
I tried many simulations of fibre, air and water and
found best fit with the measured values
Average thermal conductivity of different fibres.
Thickness measurement at different pressures to
counter the impact of hairiness.
Took average of thickness

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Fabric surface
Cell view of fabric
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Denim surface
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Preferred Method
Taking average of thermal conductivity proposed by
Moisture content considering wet fabric as unit
proposed by Hes.
Measurement of thermal conductivity, thermal
resistance and thickness proposed by Hes using
Using porosity as discussed by Hes and Militky .
Setting of Alambeta at 1000 Pa advised by Hes.
Finding the suitable simulation by doing many
hundred trials and checking agreement with actual
values, mainly guided by Crow work.

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Equations Used
For average thermal conductivity as proposed by
Militky and moisture content [Hes]

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m =
wet sample weight dry sample weight
wet sample weight
For Porosity

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Thermal resistance of fibres, water and air (layers or
gap) in fabric by using porosity and thickness

h(1 e )
(1 m )

h(1 e )
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h [m] is average, Rf , Ra Rw are thermal resistance of
fibre, air gap (layers) and water.
w, a is thermal conductivity of water and air
is water content [1] in fabric, ratio of fibers present in
the fabric (fiber volume ratio), 1-- porosity, wf is
weighed average thermal conductivity of warp and weft.

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Best Simulation with Highest Agreement with
Measured Values
A number of possible configuartion
were applied. Like, all in parallel, all in
series, some parallel and some in series.
Finally, found best agreement between
measured and simulated valued by using the
following arrangement:

Water and air in parallel
Then in series with fibres

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Sum of thermal resistances

water and air parallel
h(1 e )
(1 m )
h(1 e )
(1 m )
h(1 e )
h(1 e )
(1 m ) + l
h(1 e )
h(1 e )
(1 m ) + l
h(1 e )
(1 m ) + l
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Our Final Model

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Experimental part

Research design contains the following components:
1. Conventional and functional denim samples development
2. Denim sample testing
3. Data analysis
Denim sample development
Three types of weaves, five types of weft yarn and 12 types of
industrial washing processes were used to develop 180
denim samples.

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Testing parameters

Following areas were selected for testing and evaluation:
Thermal parameters
Thermal conductivity
Thermal absorbtivity
Thermal resistance
Air permeability
Vapour permeability resistance
Colour changes due to washing
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Moisture management
Moisture absorption rate and time for front and reverse side
of denim
Wetted radius of front and reverse side of denim
Front and reverse spreading speed
Accumulated one way transport index
Overall moisture management index (OMMC)
Kawabata Evaluation System for the testing of:
Surface friction
Geometrical roughness
Warp and Weft Bending Force

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Subjective evaluation for the testing of:
Warm and cool effect, Softness, Smoothness, Stretch,
Overall comfort
Testing equipment
Following testing instruments have been used for this study:
ALAMBETA testing equipment has been used to measure
thermal parameters [12].
PERMETEST for vapour permeability resistance [18]
KES for testing of friction and geometrical roughness of
Moisture Management Tester (MMT) to test the response of
denim when water is dropped on its surface.
UNIEG for bending force
Air Permeability Tester ATLAS
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Subjective evaluation
A group of 30 educated people was selected for the
subjective evaluation.
Testing conditions
All tests were carried out in lab where temperature was
kept between 20-22 and RH 20-25%.

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Experiment for thermal resistance model

Developed five denims.
Removed all textile finishes .
Dried in oven for more than 30 minutes at 100 centigrade temperature
to have bone dry weight .
Dip in water having wetting agent to get fully absorbed.
Measured thermal resistance by using Alambeta.
Conducted all tests in one day to avoid effect of climatic changes .
Kept lab temperature around 20 centigrade by using air conditioning .
RH was between 24-26 %.
Avoid rubbing of the sample.
Used natural evaporation process for loss of moisture.
Each sample was tested nine times at different moisture levels.

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Sample Descriptions
Denim samples
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Variation in Fabric Thickness

Variation in thickness due to:

Increase due to swelling of fibres.

Decrease due to adhesion of protruding fibres on
the surface of fabric (water works as an

I observed decrease in thickness under wet
conditions due to adhesion of protruding fibres.
There is 10-15% decrease in thickness from full
dry to full wet sample

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0.01 0.06 0.11 0.16 0.21 0.26 0.31 0.36 0.41 0.46 0.51 0.56



Moisture ()
Denim (cotton and Spun PP) thickness and moisture
Denim thickness and
Power (Denim thickness
and moisture)
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Thermal resistance prediction model under
dynamic wet conditions
Following model was applied to calculate thermal
resistance and these values were compared with
actual values. There is a substantial agreement
between measured and calculated values.
I applied this model in a separate study of knitted
fleece fabric and found it useful

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Results show that more than 70% reduction in thermal
resistance happened during moisture content in the range 0.00
to 0.30
Which shows that minor amount of moisture in fabric, is
responsible for the major reduction in thermal resistance.
It verifies the work of Fahmy and Slater. They found major
changes in initial stages of wetting
Nevertheless, further increase in moisture has a little effect on
thermal resistance.
In case of denim used in this study, only 20-30% area of denim
fabric is filled with polymers and the rest is composed of air.
Porosity of denim is in the range of .70 to .80.

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It is clearly visible from the Figures that the
prediction has a substantial agreement with
actual results.

Air has thermal conductivity 10- 15 times lesser
than polymers and offers high resistance.

In such case, heat flow is stopped by air but
when this air is replaced with water, thermal
resistance of the whole fabric reduces drastically.

In this study our focus changes to thermal
resistance of fabric due to presence of water in
denim made by using different fibres.
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Second Part
Assessment of types of weft and types of finishes under
dry and wet conditions on:

Thermal conductivity, thermal resistance and thermal
absorbtivity [Ws
Bending rigidity [mN]
Change in colour [E]
Water vapour resistance [m
Pa W
Air permeability [lm
Surface roughness [m] and coefficient of friction
Moisture management testing

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Result and Discussion
Type of t will weave has no significant influence on
thermal parameters (conductivity, resistance,
absorbtivity) of denim. It is mainly due the fact that
there is no change in porosity. Only change in surface
appearance. It may make a sensorial difference.

There is a significant adaptation in thermal parameters
due to the presence of textile auxiliaries by using split-
plot technique. It is because textile finishes have
different thermal conductivity than polymers etc.

Continued ..
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Denims made by Spun PP and Air Textured PP as
weft yarn exhibit greater consistencies under wet
conditions as compared to denims made by using
Polyethylene terephthalate (textured polyester) ,
cotton and SBC PP as weft yarn under wet
conditions by comparing graphs.
Spun PP can manage moisture and does not create a
highly wet impression and keeps its dryness intact.

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Coefficient of friction of filaments is lower than
the staple. Air texture, SBC and PET have low
values as compared to cotton and Spun PP. There
is the same case with the geometrical roughness.
Denim made by SBC PP possesses the lowest
geometrical roughness, nevertheless, cotton is
second to it and Spun PP follows.

Apparently, there is no set pattern in the response
of different denims when vapour permeability
resistance was measured. I come upon a scattered
picture, which registers that there are many
factors, which are causing the vapour
permeability. Nonetheless, denim made by cotton
has lesser vapour permeability resistance.

Denim made by cotton and Spun PP has the
highest airflow it is mainly due to the staple fibres
used to make these yarns.

Continued ..
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Spun PP has the lowest bending force, which
means that it creates fewer hindrances in the
movement of a body.

Bleaching creates a drastic difference in colour
changes. Nevertheless, there is no difference in
functional and conventional denim behaviour.
Functional denim has more difference than
traditional from standard. It shows that we less
amount of chemicals can bring same results in case
of functional denim.

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Subjective evaluation, people feel that Spun PP
denim is softer and smooth. However, conventional
denim is preferred in the area of overall comfort
when it is compared with Spun PP denim. It
confirms the measurement of bending rigidity

Study finds that people prefer the hand feel of denim
treated with silicone softener as compared to cationic

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Third Part
Development of a new kind of denim

Problems with traditional denim.
1. Heavy and less thick.
2. Become wet soon.
3. Remained wet for longer time.
4. Lose thermal resistance and become cool, particularly area
which touches chair etc during sitting.
5. More use of water and energy during production.
6. More chance of bacterial growth during wearing.

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Features of new denim made by using
spun PP as weft

1. Light weight having same thickness due to low density of PP (PP-
900-920, cotton >1500 Kg per cubic meter)
2. Less rigidtested by using bending rigidity instrument.
3. Higher air permeability as compared to traditional denim.
4. Minimum loss of thermal resistance power during wetting.
5. Has highest moisture management property
6. Needs less water for industrial washing due to major portion consist
of hydrophobic material
7. Less need of hot air for drying
8. People may feel more moving comfort due to low rigidity

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1. High vapour permeability resistance as compared to
traditional denim.
2. Rough and un-even surface due to hairiness, which
cannot be removed during production.
3. Low melting point, difficult to ironing
4. Cannot remove protruding fibres with singeing

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Traditional denim became wet soon
and remain wet for longer time,
It gave a cool feeling to wearer
Functional denim remained dry for
long time and got less amount of
moisture and became dry soon and
gave a warm effect
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Comparison of temperature of wet
traditional and functional denim due to
sweating (Used infrared thermometer)

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Denim with PP Weft Denim 100% Cotton
Day One [C] [C]
37.0 38.5
35.6 34.8
34.5 33.3
Day Two Day Two
33.0 38.5
38.4 35.5
36.2 35.4
Study Outcome
A model to predict thermal resistance of fabric
made by using hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibres.
This model can predict the loss of human body
heat at particular level of moisture. It can be used
for the development of fabric for people working
high humid conditions (sweat shops, on mountains,
sailing, under rain etc)

We have applied this model for knitted fleece fabric
made of cotton and polyester. Study is underway,
initial results show a great agreement between
measured and calculated values.

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A new kind of denim which may replace traditional
denim. Cost of PP is 10-20% higher than cotton. It
replace maximum 40-50% cotton portion.
It will be more environmental friendly, stronger, less
rigid, better moisture management, no favorable
environment for the growth of germs, safe for skin,
keep human body dry and warm.
Partial replacement of cotton reducing load on
cotton production
Able to recycle easily as compared to cotton
Fit for people doing some industrial functions

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Patent application
We have applied for its patent keeping TUL as
major partner in:

Czech Republic
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For Your:
Kind Attention
Kind Patience
Kind Presence
Kind Time
Kind Listening
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Many thanks to:

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