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Slide number: 1

6
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Six Sigma Project
Organization
Name
VINDHYACHAL SUPER
THREMAL POWER
PROJECT,NTPC LIMITED
Plant Location
VINDHYANAGAR, SIDHI, M.P.
CHAMPION
P.K.MOHAPATRA
TEAM
MEMBERS
L.D.SAHOO, Leader
SBANERJEE, Black belt
NILESH DANGAYACH, Green belt




Place the team
photograph here




Slide number: 2
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NTPC PROFILE
Indias premier national
power generating
company
Multi fuel, multi location
plants
Comprehensive
capabilities in
Building and operating
power plants
In house project
implementation
Negotiating fuel
purchase, bulk power
sale
Consultancy services

VINDHYACHAL
Slide number: 3
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3260 MW
Slide number: 4
6
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0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
U1(87) U2(88) U3(89) U4(89) U5(90) U6(91) U7(99) U8(00) U9(06) U10(07)
Unit (Year)
THE LARGEST
POWER PLANT OF THE NATION
C
A
P
A
C
I
T
Y

(
M
W
)

6x210 MW + 2x500 MW + 2x500 MW
3260 MW
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6
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Slide number: 6
6
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D
Define

M & A
Measure &
Analyse

I
Improve

C
Control
DEFINE
MEASURE & ANALYSE
IMPROVE
CONTROL
Slide number: 7
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Problem Statement
At NTPC Vindhyachal Stage-II (2 x 500 MW)
boiler exit flue gas loss causing huge heat rate
deviation, reducing thermal power efficiency
and increasing carbon di oxide emission.

Slide number: 8
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Part number selected for study
Stage II (2 x 500 MW) BOILER

PART NUMBER HAVING SIMILAR DESIGN
STAGE III (2 x 500 MW) newly
commissioned units
Slide number: 9
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Process stages where the Problem is suspected
Less heat absorption in first pass as well as super and re-
heater section of the boiler
Soot deposit in water wall and radiant zone of the furnace as
well as super heater area
Less optimized operational parameters like:
Total air flow
Burner tilt,
Mills under performances,
Poor fineness,
SADC position, etc.
Air ingress
Poor performances of Air preheater
Slide number: 10
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Current average rejection for last 6 months

Exit flue gas temperature is around 20
0
C more
than the designed value 140
0
C,
Heat loss of around 28 kcal/kwhr.

Maximum and Minimum rejection in last 6 months
Maximum/month : 165
0
C (35 kcal /kwhr)
Minimum/month : 160
0
C (28 kcal/kwhr)
Slide number: 11
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Objective of the Project
To optimize exit flue gas loss of boiler
through operational fine tuning, increasing
efficiency of thermal power cycle, to reduce
coal consumption and thus saving natural
resources, reducing carbon dioxide emission
Slide number: 12
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Potential annual savings
Every one
0
C reduction in exit Flue gas temperature
saves 1.4 kcal/kwhr of heat rate , (saving of 1.4 x
2200 MT of coal annually in stage II units)
20
0
C reduction from its design value means
saving 61000 MT of coal annually in stage II
Cost of coal/MT =Rs 1000/-(approx.)
Potential saving = 6.1 crores annually in stage II
units
Slide number: 13
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Response
Variable : Exit flue gas temp at the boiler
outlet in
0
C.
Specification (if the response is variable)
Less than 140
0
C
Slide number: 14
6
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3%
Stack
Clean-up
Equipment
5%
Auxiliary
Power
10%
Stack
Losses
37%
Electricity
Production
45%
Rejected Heat to
Cooling Water/ Cooling Tower
Heat Input into a Large Coal Fueled Power Plant
Slide number: 15
6
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Slide number: 16
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BOTTOM RNG HDR & Z-PANEL 1
ST
PASS W.W
1
ST
PASS W.W O/L HDRS ROOF I/L HEADER
2
ND
PASS UPPER C-HDR 2
nd
PASS LOWER C-HDRS
LTSH I/L HEADER LTSH O/L HEADER
D.P.I/L HEADER D.P.O/L HEADER
S.H. HEADER R.H.HEADER
2
ND
PASS ROOF O/L HDR(REAR ECONOMISER




M.S
H.
R.
H C.R.H
FROM F.R.S
Slide number: 17
6
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P
A
P
H
-
A

S
A
P
H
-
A

S
A
P
H
-
B

P
A
P
H
-
B

FD FAN -B
FD FAN-A
PA FAN -A
PA FAN -A
S
C
A
P
H
-
B


































P
R
I
M
A
R
Y

S
C
A
P
H
-
B






S
E
C
O
N
D

S
C
A
P
H
-
A

































P
R
I
M
A
R
Y

S
C
A
P
H
-
A






S
E
C
O
N
D

TO MILLS
TO MILLS
H
O
T

P
A

H
D
R

H
O
T






S
A

H
D
R

ECO BYPASS
ECO BYPASS
E
C
O
N
O
M
I
S
E
R
-
3

E
C
O
N
O
M
I
S
E
R

-
2

E
C
O
N
O
M
I
S
E
R

-
1

H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L

S
.
H

R
E

H
E
A
T
E
R

P
L
A
T
E
N

S
.
H

D
I
V
I
S
I
O
N

P
A
N
E
L
E
T
T
E


S
.
H

COMBUSTION
CHAMBER
AEROFOIL
AEROFOIL
COLD SEC. AIR
COLD PRIM AIR
HOT PRIMARY AIR
HOT SEC. AIR
FLUE GAS
PNEUMATICALLY O/P
KNIFE EDGE GATE
MOTOR O/P LOUVER
DAMPER
PNEUMATICALLY O/P
LOUVER DAMPER
MOTOR O/P GATE
BIPLANE DAMPER
DIVERTER DAMPER
AA201
AA202 AA203
AA204
AA205
AA201
AA202 AA203 AA205
AA204
AIR AND FLUE GAS PATH TYPICAL 500 MW BOILER
TO ESP
TO ESP
Slide number: 18
6
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FLUE GAS FLOW DIAGRAM
P
L
A
T
E
N
D
I
V
I
S
I
O
N
A
L
F
U
R
N
A
C
E
R
E
H
E
A
T
E
R
H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L
S
H
E
C
O
N.
1
&
2
E
C
O
N
O
M
IS
E
R
3
PAPH B
SAPH B
SAPH A
PAPH A
960
964
846
944
750
810
549
606
365
379
L
H
S
R
H
S
DUE TO UNEQUAL HEAT ABSORBTION IN DIFFERENT SECTIONS
OF THE BOILER LEADING TO HIGH FLUE GAS EXIT TEMP IN
0
C PAPH
O/L TEMP
145
0
C
SAPH B
O/L TEMP
160
0
C
SAPH A
O/L TEMP
164
0
C
SAPH B
O/L TEMP
145
0
C
Slide number: 19
6
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In this project our main reference of control is
exit flue gas at air preheater outlet, but for our
analysis flue gas temp at economizer inlet is
taken as reference
Assumption
Slide number: 20
6
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FLUE GAS FLOW DIAGRAM
P
L
A
T
E
N
D
I
V
I
S
I
O
N
A
L
F
U
R
N
A
C
E
R
E
H
E
A
T
E
R
H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L
S
H
E
C
O
N.
1
&
2
E
C
O
N
O
M
IS
E
R
3
PAPH B
SAPH B
SAPH A
PAPH A
960
964
846
944
750
810
549
606
365
379
L
H
S
R
H
S
Flue gas temp at eco i/l
Is treated as our reference
PAPH
O/L TEMP
145
0
C
SAPH B
O/L TEMP
160
0
C
SAPH A
O/L TEMP
164
0
C
SAPH B
O/L TEMP
145
0
C
Slide number: 21
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Project Planning
Phases
Planned Start
date
Planned
Completio
n date
Actual start
date
Actual
completion
date
STATUS
Define
1
ST
WEEK MAY
2006
4
TH
WEEK
OF MAY
1
ST
WEEK MAY
2006

4
TH
WEEK OF
MAY
COMPLETED
Measure
&
Analyze
IST WEEK OF
JUNE 06
4
TH
WEEK
OF JULY 06
1
ST
WEEK
JUNE06
4
TH
WEEK OF
AUG 2006
COMPLETED
Improve
1
ST
WEEK OF
JULY 06
4
TH
WEEK
OF SEPT 06
1
ST
WEEK OF
AUG 2006
4
TH
WEEK OF
OCT 2006
COMPLETED
Control
1
ST
WEEK AUG
2006
4
TH
WEEK
OF OCT 2006
1
ST
WEEK OF
AUG 2006
TO CONTINUE IN PROGRESS
Slide number: 22
6
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BOILER DRUM
LHS
RHS

FR
REAR
CC PUMP SUC HDR
PHOTOGRAPH OF DEFECTIVE PARTS
Soot
Built up
In 1
st
pass
Slide number: 23
6
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BOTTOM RNG HDR & Z-PANEL 1
ST
PASS W.W
1
ST
PASS W.W O/L HDRS ROOF I/L HEADER
2
ND
PASS UPPER C-HDR 2
nd
PASS LOWER C-HDRS
LTSH I/L HEADER LTSH O/L HEADER
D.P.I/L HEADER D.P.O/L HEADER
S.H. HEADER R.H.HEADER
2
ND
PASS ROOF O/L HDR(REAR ECONOMISER




M.S
H.
R.
H C.R.H
FROM F.R.S
Clinker and soot
Deposit in super
Heater and reheater
Slide number: 24
6
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COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality)
Phase 1- Problem Definition
Deviation of exit flue gas temp.
from its designed value
20
0
C( six monthly average value)
Deviation of exit flue gas temp.
from its designed value in last
month
20
0
C
Boiler heat rate loss due to temp
variation
1.4 kcal/kwhr x 20 = 28 kcal/kwhr
Amount of coal required to burn
more due to heat rate loss
28 x 2200 MT of coal annually i.e 61000
MT of coal (considering 90% plant load
factor in stage II units)
Financial implication of extra
coal burnt
6.1 crores of Rs( considering coal cost of
1000 Rs per MT of coal on an average)
Indirect /extra
cost/environmental implication
Less power cycle efficiency, more co
2
emission
Slide number: 25
6
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Phase 1- Problem Definition
Suspected Sources of Variation for the
Problem statement (SSVs)
More convective flow less retention of heat in 1
st
pass
Less heat absorption in 1
st
pass due to slagging
Less heat absorption in super heater and re heater area
due to dirtiness in the area ,clinkering formation in
radiant zone
Improper secondary damper position
Poor performance of air preheater and its air ingress
Air ingress in the furnace from pent house and thro
duct and dampers
Slide number: 26
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D
Define

M & A
Measure &
Analyse

I
Improve

C
Control




DEFINE
MEASURE & ANALYSE
IMPROVE
CONTROL
Slide number: 27
6
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
Analysis #1


-

More convective flow means
Less retention of heat in 1st pass
Higher total air flow
Higher spray is due to less heat absorption in
1
st
pass
Slide number: 28
6
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Data taken with varying total air flow and different spray
Data entry in Minitab
Slide number: 29
6
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Regression Analysis


FG TEMP AT ECO(R) = 273 + 0.206 total air flow + 0.314 S/H spray


Predictor Coef SE Coef T P
Constant 272.65 61.89 4.41 0.001
total air flow 0.20579 0.03930 5.24 0.000
s/h spray 0.31400 0.04592 6.84 0.000


S = 2.57008 R-Sq = 85.9% R-Sq(adj) = 83.3%


Analysis of Variance

Source DF SS MS F P
Regression 2 442.56 221.28 33.50 0.000
Residual Error 11 72.66 6.61
Total 13 515.21

Source DF Seq SS
total air flow 1 133.75
s/h spray 1 308.80
An high R-sq value shows that the
regression equation is explaining 85.9
percent variation in FG temperature.
Positive coefficient means
More total air flow, higher spray
results in higher FG temp at
ECO(R)
Slide number: 30
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
Analysis # 2
OBJ ECTIVE :
Optimization of soot blower practices so as to
improve heat absorption in 1
st
pass and reduce
super heater spray

OBSERVATION:

1. Effect of 4th tier is minimum in terms of S/H and R/H spray
2. 1st TIER EFFECT IS MAXIMUM AND SH/RH TEMP. Falls sharply so
is the spray.

Slide number: 31
6
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1 2 3 4 5 6
23 24 25 26 27 28
45 46 47 48 49 50
67 68 69 70 71 72
12 13 14 15 16 17
34 35 36 37 38 39
56 57 58 59 60 61
78 79 80 81 82 83
FRONT SIDE SOOT BLOWERS REAR SIDE SOOT BLOWERS
1
ST
TIER
2
ND
TIER
3
RD
TIER
4
TH
TIER
1
ST
TIER
2
ND
TIER
3
RD
TIER
4
TH
TIER
Slide number: 32
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18 19 20 21 22
40 41 42 43 44
62 63 64 65 66
84 85 86 87 88
7 8 9 10 11
29 30 31 32 33
51 52 53 54 55
73 74 75 76 77
LHS SOOT BLOWERS RHS SOOT BLOWERS
1
ST
TIER
1
ST
TIER
2
ND
TIER 2
ND
TIER
3
RD
TIER 3
RD
TIER
4
TH
TIER 4
TH
TIER
Slide number: 33
6
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Slide number: 34
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Slide number: 35
6
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
Action Taken

1. 4
th
TIER SOOT BLOWING STARTED ONCE IN TWO
DAYS

2. Sequence is reversed 3,2,1,3,2,1,3,2,1,3

3. 1
st
TIER IS STARTED IN NIGHT SHIFT AT GOOD
VACUUM CONDITION
Slide number: 36
6
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HYPOTHESIS TESTING
NULL HYPOTHESIS Ho- (ONE TAILED)
Super heater/reheater spray before and after the
changed intervention is same
ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS Ha
super heater /reheater spray before is higher
than super heater/reheater spray after



Slide number: 37
6
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Data Entry in Minitab for
Slide number: 38
6
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
WATER WALL SOOT BLOWING PRATICES CHANGED FROM
PATTERN 1234 TO PATTERN 321 AND 3214

ADVANTAGES OBTAINED- S/H SPRAY AND R/H SPRAY REDUCED

Two-sample T for super heater spray(before) vs super heater spray (after)

N Mean StDev SE Mean
super heater (Before) 20 67.7 16.1 3.6
super heater (After) 20 56.7 15.8 3.5
Difference = mu (super heater spray(before)) - mu (super heater spray (after))
Estimate for difference: 11.0000
95% CI for difference: (0.7782, 21.2218)
T-Test of difference = 0 (vs not =): T-Value = 2.18 P-Value = 0.036 DF = 37


Slide number: 39
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
WATER WALL SOOT BLOWING PRATICES CHANGED FROM
PATTERN 1234 TO PATTERN 321 AND 3214

Two-sample T for REHEATER SPRAY(BEF) T/HR vs REHEATER SPRAY(AFTER)
N Mean StDev SE Mean
REHEATER SPRAY(B 20 17.90 5.41 1.2
REHEATER SPRAY(A 20 15.40 3.87 0.87
Difference = mu (REHEATER SPRAY(BEF) T/HR) - mu (REHEATER SPRAY(AFTER))
Estimate for difference: 2.50000
95% lower bound for difference: -0.01494
T-Test of difference = 0 (vs >): T-Value = 1.68 P-Value = 0.051 DF = 34
NULL HYPOTHESIS IS REJECTED
ALT HYPOTHESIS IS ACCEPTED
Slide number: 40
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
D
a
t
a
super heater spray (after) super heater spray(before)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
Boxplot of super heater spray(before), super heater spray (after)
SH SPRAY BEFORE AND AFTER THIS SOOT BLOWING PATTERN
Box plot Before & After)
Slide number: 41
6
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
D
a
t
a
REHEATER SPRAY(AFTER) REHEATER SPRAY(BEF) T/HR
30
25
20
15
10
BOXPLT SHOWING THE DIFF
RH SPRAY BEFORE AND AFTER THIS SOOT BLOWING PATTERN
Slide number: 42
6
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CONCLUSION
Change in soot blowing practices
helped in reducing super heater and
reheater spray
Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
Slide number: 43
6
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
Analysis #3
Objective
To increase heat absorption in super heater and reheater
section of the boiler, in running condition we have the
measure of long retractable soot blowing operation and to
clear dirtiness, soot , clinkers inside the boiler.
The elaborate arrangements of LRSB along with the
figures are attached herewith.
Slide number: 44
6
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Slide number: 45
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Slide number: 46
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125 127
129
131 133
137 135
119
121
123
BOILER RHS LRSB
105
107
109
117
115
113
111
2
nd
pass
Slide number: 47
6
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106
108
110
136 138
132 134
130
128 126
BOILER LHS LRSB
124
122
120
118
116
114
112
2
nd
pass
Slide number: 48
6
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FLUE GAS FLOW DIAGRAM
P
L
A
T
E
N
D
I
V
I
S
I
O
N
A
L
F
U
R
N
A
C
E
R
E
H
E
A
T
E
R
H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L
S
H
E
C
O
N.
1
&
2
E
C
O
N
O
M
IS
E
R
3
PAPH B
SAPH B
SAPH A
PAPH A
960
964
846
944
750
810
549
606
365
379
L
H
S
R
H
S
FLUE GAS TEMP NOTED
AT THE ECONOMISER INLET
Slide number: 49
6
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HYPOTHESIS TESTING
NULL HYPOTHESIS Ho- (ONE TAILED)
Flue gas temperature before economizer inlet is
almost same before and after LRSB operation
ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS Ha
Flue gas temp is higher than temp after the
LRSB operation.



Slide number: 50
6
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Data entry in Minitab for
Slide number: 51
6
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Two-Sample T-Test and CI: ECO INLET FLUE GAS TEMP BEF AND
AFTER LRSB


N Mean StDev SE Mean
ECO INLET FLUE G 20 594.90 7.72 1.7
ECO FLUE GAS TEM 20 573.80 6.39 1.4

Difference = mu (ECO INLET FLUE GAS TEMP BEF LRS) - mu (ECO FLUE
GAS TEMP AFTER
LRSB)
Estimate for difference: 21.1000
95% lower bound for difference: 17.3159
T-Test of difference = 0 (vs >): T-Value = 9.41 P-Value = 0.000 DF = 36
SO NULL HYPOTHESIS IS REJECTED

Slide number: 52
6
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Box plots for .
D
a
t
a
ECO FLUE GAS TEMP AFTER LRSB ECO INLET FLUE GAS TEMP BEF LRS
610
600
590
580
570
560
Boxplot of ECO INLET FLUE GAS TEMP BEF LRS, ECO FLUE GAS TEMP AFTER LRSB
Slide number: 53
6
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CONCLUSION

FLUE GAS TEMP BEFORE
ECONOMISER REDUCED
CONSIDERABLY
AFTER LRSB OPERATION
Slide number: 54
6
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Phase 2- Measure and Analyze
Total Analysis summary
Cause(s) identified for the problem:
Less optimized operational parameter like total air flow,
first pass low heat absorption due to slagging leading to
higher super heater spray.
Low heat absorption in super heater and reheater
section
Root cause(s) identified for the problem:
Low heat absorption in super heater and reheater plays
dominant role along with total air flow in the furnace.
Slide number: 55
6
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REGRESSION
Funneling #1
Funneling :
Funneling Summary
Funneling # 2
POOR HEAT ABSORBTION IN
SUPER HEATER AND REHEATER
SECTION
Funneling # 3
Phase 2 Measure and Analyze
HYPOTHESIS
TESTING
HYPOTHESIS
TESTING
MORE CONVECTIVE FLOW MEANS LESS
RETENTION OF HEAT IN 1ST PASS

POOR HEAT ABSORBTION IN 1 ST PASS
Slide number: 56
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D
Define

M & A
Measure &
Analyse

I
Improve

C
Control
DEFINE
MEASURE & ANALYSE
IMPROVE
CONTROL
Slide number: 57
6
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To validate regression equation for 2
nd
degree
using response surface methodology, in order
to fine tune total air flow and super heater spray
for further optimization of eco inlet flue gas
temperature
Validation of root cause #1
Validation of the Root cause(s)
Slide number: 58
6
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Regression: FG TEMP AT ECO(R) versus total air
flow, S/H spray
The analysis was done using coded units.
Estimated Regression Coefficients for FG TEMP AT ECO(R)

Term Coef SE Coef T P
Constant 606.668 0.6806 891.336 0.000
total air flow 5.961 1.4930 3.993 0.003
s/h spray 7.589 1.0626 7.142 0.000
total air flow*s/h spray -3.022 2.0172 -1.498 0.165

S = 2.436 R-Sq = 88.5% R-Sq(adj) = 85.0%

Analysis of Variance for FG TEMP AT ECO(R)

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P
Regression 3 455.871 455.871 151.957 25.61 0.000
Linear 2 442.556 451.757 225.878 38.06 0.000
Interaction 1 13.315 13.315 13.315 2.24 0.165
Residual Error 10 59.343 59.343 5.934
Total 13 515.214
Slide number: 59
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Residual Analysis
Residual
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
5.0 2.5 0.0 -2.5 -5.0
99
90
50
10
1
Fitted Value
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
615 610 605 600 595
5.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
-5.0
Residual
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
4 2 0 -2 -4
4
3
2
1
0
Observation Order
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
5.0
2.5
0.0
-2.5
-5.0
Normal Probability Plot of the Residuals Residuals Versus the Fitted Values
Histogram of the Residuals Residuals Versus the Order of the Data
Residual Plots for FG TEMP AT ECO(R)
Slide number: 60
6
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Contour Plot for searching optimal point
total air flow
s
/
h

s
p
r
a
y
1600 1590 1580 1570 1560 1550 1540
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
FG TEMP
600 - 605
605 - 610
610
AT ECO(R)
- 615
> 615
< 595
595 - 600
Contour Plot of FG TEMP AT ECO(R) vs s/h spray, total air flow
total air flow = 1562.08
s/h spray = 27.5537
FG TEMP AT ECO(R) = 602.571
Slide number: 61
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Phase 3 - Improve
Optimization of total air flow in the furnace
and to contain super heater spray by water
wall soot blowing is having a limited effect
in controlling eco inlet flue gas temp.
CONCLUSION
Slide number: 62
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ROOT CAUSE NO2
Validation of the Root cause(s)
To improve heat absorption in super heater
and reheater section through selective long
retractable soot blowing operation and later
using ANOVA analysis
Slide number: 63
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125 127
129
131 133
137 135
119
121
123
BOILER RHS LRSB
105
107
109
117
115
113
111
LRSB ARE DIVIDED
INTO

A-S/H RIGHT R/H
LEFT

B-S/H R/H RIGHT
AND 2ND PASS

C-2ND PASS ONLY

D-S/H RIGHT AND
R/H LEFT
2
nd
pass
Slide number: 64
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Data Entry in Minitab for
Slide number: 65
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STACKED DATA OF ECO INLET FLUE GAS TEMP
Slide number: 66
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HYPOTHESIS FOR ANOVA
NULL HYPOTHESIS-Ho
Mean of Flue gas temp before eco is same in all
four cases of experiment

ALT HYPOTHESIS Ha
At least one mean is different than others.

Slide number: 67
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One-way ANOVA: C15 versus C14

Source DF SS MS F P
C14 3 3094.6 1031.5 18.95 0.000
Error 56 3048.7 54.4
Total 59 6143.2

S = 7.378 R-Sq = 50.37% R-Sq(adj) = 47.72%

Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on
Pooled StDev
Level N Mean StDev ---------+---------+---------+---------+
A 15 557.40 8.07 (----*-----)
B 15 569.47 10.37 (-----*----)
C 15 576.20 4.00 (----*-----)
D 15 561.93 5.39 (-----*----)
---------+---------+---------+---------+
560.0 567.0 574.0 581.0

Pooled StDev = 7.38

Reject the null hypothesis
At least one form is creating
significant improvement

Analysis data for validation
Slide number: 68
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C14 = A subtracted from:

C14 Lower Center Upper --------+---------+---------+---------
+-
B 4.942 12.067 19.192 (-----*-----)
C 11.675 18.800 25.925 (-----*-----)
D -2.592 4.533 11.658 (-----*-----)
--------+---------+---------+---------+-
-12 0 12 24


Confidence interval that contain do not zero means
There is a statistically significant difference between
A and B & C &D so LRSB section A containing RHS of 1
st
pass
and LHS of 2
nd
pass to be employed frequently
Slide number: 69
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C14
C
1
5
D C B A
590
580
570
560
550
540
Individual Value Plot of C15 vs C14
C14
C
1
5
D C B A
590
580
570
560
550
540
Boxplot of C15 by C14
Box plot showing the best results for the LRSB A
Slide number: 70
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Residual
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
20 10 0 -10 -20
99.9
99
90
50
10
1
0.1
Fitted Value
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
575 570 565 560 555
20
10
0
-10
-20
Residual
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
16 8 0 -8 -16
16
12
8
4
0
Observation Order
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l
60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1
20
10
0
-10
-20
Normal Probability Plot of the Residuals Residuals Versus the Fitted Values
Histogram of the Residuals Residuals Versus the Order of the Data
Residual Plots for C15
RESIDUAL VALUE OF THE STACK VALUE
Residuals are normally distributed , there is no reason to reject the model
Slide number: 71
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Phase 3 Improve Actions Summary
No Root cause(s) Actions Planned Planned
Complet
ion date
Resp Actual
complet
ion date
S
t
a
t
u
s

1
More convective
flow means less
retention of heat in
1st pass and
slagging in 1
st
pass
1. Total air flow is to be
maintained in
between 1560-1620
TPH
2. To employ new
pattern of water wall
soot blowing
From 1
st

week of
JULY
2006
S
h
i
f
t

c
h
a
r
g
e

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r

i
n

s
t
2

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Water
all
sootblo
wing
done
every in
each
shift
I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
e
d

2,
Low heat
absorption super
heater and reheater
section
Increase the frequency
of LRSB in new pattern
of section A
1
ST

WEEK
OF
SEPT
2007
S
h
i
f
t

c
h
a
r
g
e

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r

i
n

s
t
2

o
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

I
t

w
i
l
l

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e

e
v
e
r
y

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
e

d
a
y
s

o
n
l
y


I
m
p
l
e
m
e
n
t
e
d

Slide number: 72
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1 2 3 4 5 6
23 24 25 26 27 28
45 46 47 48 49 50
67 68 69 70 71 72
12 13 14 15 16 17
34 35 36 37 38 39
56 57 58 59 60 61
78 79 80 81 82 83
FRONT SIDE SOOT BLOWERS
REAR SIDE SOOT BLOWERS
1
ST
TIER
2
ND
TIER
3
RD
TIER
4
TH
TIER
1
ST
TIER
2
ND
TIER
3
RD
TIER
4
TH
TIER
Slide number: 73
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18 19 20 21 22
40 41 42 43 44
62 63 64 65 66
84 85 86 87 88
7 8 9 10 11
29 30 31 32 33
51 52 53 54 55
73 74 75 76 77
LHS SOOT BLOWERS RHS SOOT BLOWERS
1
ST
TIER
1
ST
TIER
2
ND
TIER 2
ND
TIER
3
RD
TIER 3
RD
TIER
4
TH
TIER 4
TH
TIER
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125 127
129
131 133
137 135
119
121
123
BOILER RHS LRSB
105
107
109
117
115
113
111
BOILER RHS RED
CLOURED LRSB
SELECTED BASED ON
THE RESULTS OF
ANOVA
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106
108
110
136 138
132 134
130
128 126
BOILER LHS LRSB
120
124
122
112
114
116
118
RED
COLOURED
LRSBS
IN REHEATER
Slide number: 76
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D
Define

M & A
Measure &
Analyse

I
Improve

C
Control
DEFINE
MEASURE & ANALYSE
IMPROVE
CONTROL
Slide number: 77
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Phase 4 Control Phase
No Root cause Variation analysis
done
Type of control method
decided
Status of
implementati
on
1
MORE CONVECTI VE
FLOW MEANS LESS
RETENTI ON OF HEAT
I N 1ST PASS AND
SLAGGI NG I N 1
ST
PASS
EXPERIMENTATI
ON AND
VALIDATION
THRO PAIRED T
TEST AND
REGRESSION
AND RESPONSE
SURFACE
METHODOLOGY
1.CHANGES IN SOOT
BLOWING
PROCEDURE
REVISED AND
STANDARDISED
2. POKAYOKA
METHODOLOGY
THROUGH
INTRODUCING
ANNUNCIATION
CKT WHEN AIR
FLOW CROSSING
1630 TPH

IMPLEMEN
TED FROM
JULY 2006
2.
LOW HEAT
ABSORBTIOIN SUPER
HEATER AND
REHEATER SECTION
EXPERIMENTATIO
N AND
VALIDATION
THROUGH ANOVA
ANALYSIS
STANDARD CHART
INTRODUCED
SUGGESTING LRSB
NOS
IMPLEMEN
TED FROM
SEPT 2006

Slide number: 78
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Phase 4- Control
Analysis # 1
Objective: To establish whether the improvement actions
employed bring in improvement in our objective data which
is SAPH/PAPH outlet temp (exit flue gas temp)

Tool/technique used: Hypothesis testing of comparison
-


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Phase 4- Control
Data collected for Control
Data entry in Minitab for
Slide number: 80
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Phase 4 - Control
Two-sample T for SAPHA O/L BEF vs SAPHA O/L AFT

N Mean StDev SE Mean
SAPHA O/L BEF 27 158.70 4.69 0.90
SAPHA O/L AFT 27 155.00 4.28 0.82

Difference = mu (SAPHA O/L BEF) - mu (SAPHA O/L AFT)
Estimate for difference: 3.70370
95% lower bound for difference: 1.65715
T-Test of difference = 0 (vs >): T-Value = 3.03 P-Value = 0.002 DF = 51

SAPH A OUTLET TEMP COMPARED BETWEEN ONE MONTH VALUE
BEFORE AND AFTER THE IMPROVEMENT ACTION IMPLEMENTED
Establish significant improvement
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Box and Individual plot
D
a
t
a
SAPHA O/L AFT SAPHA O/L BEF
170
165
160
155
150
145
140
Boxplot of SAPHA O/L BEF, SAPHA O/L AFT
D
a
t
a
SAPHA O/L AFT SAPHA O/L BEF
170
165
160
155
150
145
140
Individual Value Plot of SAPHA O/L BEF, SAPHA O/L AFT
Slide number: 82
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Phase 4- Control
Project Summary
THE FACTORS LIKE TOTAL AIR FLOW, SUPER HEATER
METAL TEMP, LESS HEAT ABSORBTION
IN 1
ST
PASS AND SUPER HEATER AND REHEATER ETC
ARE IMPORTANT.

ROOT CAUSES- LESS HEAT ABSORBTION IN
SUPER HEATER AND REHEATER


FOLLOWING FOCUSSED LRSB IMPROVED HEAT
ABSORBTION AND REDUCED EXIT FLUE GAS TEMP.
Slide number: 83
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HEAT RATE SAVING FROM IMPROVEMENT ACTION

Every one degree decrease in average flue gas temp.At APH O/L gives
heat rate improvement to 1.4kcal/kwh.
On an average there is a decrease of 4.5 degC of exit flue gas.
So by decreasing 4.5 degC we are saving heat rate 1.4 x 4.5 = 6.4 kcal
/kwhr.
I kcal/kwhr saving means coal saving of 2200 mt of coal annually in
stage II.[ considering 90% plf on an average, AVCV is 3800 kcal/kg]
By this project reduction of 6.4 kcal/kwh of heat rate achieved
Saving 6.4 x 2200 MT of coal= 14080MT of coal in a year.
Considering cost of coal Rs 1000/- per MT
The financial gain from the project is 14016 MT x Rs 1000= Rs 1.40
crores
Tangible Benefits derived through the project
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Phase 4 - Control
I ntangible benefits derived through the project
1. Less coal burnt means less carbon di oxide
emission and ash generation
2. Adopting intelligent soot blowing and selective
LRSB operation thus reducing steam consumption
3. Optimization of total air flow reducing Aux Power
Consumption of ID fans
Slide number: 85
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Phase 4 - Control
Current control plan
Continuous monitoring of super heater spray
and total air flow in shift operation
Monitoring of flue gas eco inlet temp which
decides the timing of LRSB operation as per
chart.
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Phase 4 - Control
Proposed control plan
O
2
trimming device will be provided soon
which will optimize total air flow further.
Proposal for procuring software for
intelligent soot blowing operation is being
mooted
Slide number: 87
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THANKS
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