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Seminar by

REGD NO -0711018009
IC engines using diesel as fuel are used mostly in heavy vehicles
These engines are producing lots polluting gases like CO2,CO,
NOX etc. in combustion process which are responsible for global
The fossil fuels are going to exhaust in near future
As result, the research effort in the field of alternative fuel is
increased to face the above problems
Several studies have shown that vegetable oils( bio-diesel) can
be used as alternative fuels in conventional diesel engine
because they have low CO2 emission and the future will be
independent of fossil fuel

Vegetable oils cant be used in diesel engines directly
because its low temperature fluid properties. By
converting this oil to ester by transesterification
process which reduces its viscosity and density its
property will become nearly similar to that of diesel.
The main objective of this research is study of
combustion characteristic of biodiesel in DI engine
which can be attained by comparing biodiesel with
diesel in wide range of operating conditions
Bio diesel diesel
Lower heating value [MJ/kg] 36.79 42.84
Stoich A/F ratio 12.6 14.56
Density @ 15 C [kg/m3] 882.5 843.0
Viscosity @ 40 C [mm2/s] 4.304 2.847
Cetane number 52.9 51.0
Acid value [mgKOH/g] 0.29 -
Total glycerol [%] 0.1 -
Free glycerol [%] <0.01 -
Total contamination [mg/kg] 6.2 18
Sulphur content [mg/kg] 2.1 27.9
Chemical formula
CH1.864O0.106 CH1.7
Properties of biodiesel fuel and diesel fuel
this methodology based on experimental test performed in single
cylinder diesel engines since this type of facility generate more
accurate data compared to multi cylinder engines.
Test engine is peugeot 1.6 lit single cylinder diesel engine which is
equipped with second generation common rail injection system
Stroke(mm) 76
Displacement volume(mm) 0.399
Connecting rod length(mm) 123.8
Eccentricity (mm) 1
Compression ratio 17:1
Maximum speed(rpm) 4500
Injection system Common rail 160mpa
with solenoid control
Characteristics of single cylinder engine
Scheme of single cylinder research engine and
complete test cell
In cylinder pressure
By kistler 6043A
Pressure measured per 25 cycles
quantity of pollutants
Un burned hydrocarbons(UHC). Nox,CO,CO2
By horiba7100
Smoke emission
measurement of soot emission
by AVL smoke meter
unit filter smoke number
EGR system is used in this system
While evaluating dilution level EGR rate can be used as a parameter . But
it is different value depending on the chemical composition of the fuel.
The most appropriate parameter to quantify the dilution between the
fresh air and exhaust is the YO2 intake

Dilution level
Load level
The oxygen mass consumed during the combustion has been
considered as the most suitable parameter to quantify the load level
The consumed oxygen should be quantified in the following way:
YO2intake YO2exhaust
YO2 intake = YO2atm(1-EGR)+YO2 exhaust.EGR

p /m(BTDC)
A 61
Pilot injection+
Main injection
B 61
Pilot injection +
Main injection
C 61
Main injection
D 100
Pilot injection +
Main injection
All the operating conditions are centered in condition A . Only one
parameter is was modified while moving to any other operating
Sample maps for comparison
Result and discussion
The analysis of the experimental results obtained with
conventional diesel and neat biodiesel have been divided
into two progressive and complementary steps
1. Description of combustion performance
2. Insight physical biodiesel combustion phenomena
1.Description of combustion performance
Main parameters to be checked
1. End of combustion angle
2. Indicated efficiency
3. Exhaust gas temperature
4. Combustion induced noise

1.End of combustion angle
The end of combustion angle
defined as the crank angle at which
total heat has been released
The map confirm an early EOC for
biodiesel than that for diesel fuel.
Start of ignition is same for all test
so shorter combustion process

Map comparing EOC observed
using neat biodiesel and diesel fuel
Ratio maps of CO, UHC,density and adiabatic
2. Indicated efficiency
Due to short combustion
duration(earlier EOC) the
combustion process is shifted
towards the top dead centre
So the indicated efficiency
increases because the gravity
centre located near the top dead
At low load the indicated
efficiency is nearly same for both
But for the high loads indicated
efficiency is higher for biodiesel
Ratio of indicated
3. Exhaust gas temperature
Higher indicated efficiency indicates
better conversion of thermal energy
into mechanical energy.
So the thermal energy remaining in
the exhaust gases should be lower
Its results in low exhaust
In the low pressure combustion
region the exhaust temperature is
critical even for diesel fuel due to its
negative effects of turbocharger
performance. So the lower exhaust
temperature observed for biodiesel
could be a major draw back for its
applicability in future diesel engines

4. Combustion induced noise
In case of biodiesel fuel the
combustion noise is slighted
reduced compared to the diesel
It takes place during the pre-
mixed combustion stage
It is directly linked with the
pressure gradient and it is
estimated by instantaneous
pressure signal
Physical biodiesel combustion phenomena
Due to complexity of combustion process this analysis is divided into
three phases
1. Ignition delay
2. Premixed combustion
3. Mixing controlled combustion

Ignition delay and premixed combustion is
analyzed in the operating condition C(only main
mixing controlled combustion is analyzed in the
operating condition A

1 . Ignition delay and premixed combustion stage
Ignition delay corresponds to beginning of the fuel injection
until the cylinder rise in pressure i.e the start of combustion
ID= SOC - ( SOI + Hydraulic time delay)
This reduction of ignition delay is mainly caused due to
different in physical composition and chemical properties of the
Higher cetane number also responsible for the shorter ignition
Comparison of ignition delay and premised combustion parameters
between biodiesel and diesel in operating condition C
Neat biodiesel reduces the premixed combustion
period and also the mass of the fuel burnt in premixed
The effect of dilution is evident in this premixed
combustion stage
Because the premixed combustion duration increases
as YO2intake is reduced
As biodiesel shortens the ignition delay it is more
difficult to attain a highly premixed combustion for
reducing NOx emission
Premixed combustion directly related to the ignition

Mixing controlled combustion
This phase of combustion is analyzed in operating condition A because
this setting inhibits the premixed combustion and promotes diffusion
Following hypothesis are used to analysis
1. the diffusion combustion process is produced in oxygen/fuel
stoichiometric conditions
2. analysis of diesel spray behavior by the theory of turbulent gas
From the second hypothesis

C = fuel concentration
Deq=equivalent diameter of
the jet nozzle
X =jet length
From the first hypothesis
FL=flame length
Considering the profile velocity along the axial direction of
gaseous jet
Mixing time=
Integrating this equation we will get
From this equation two opposite effects has been detected
Stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is higher than the density
ratio and the ST ratio is squared but the density ratio is
square rooted
So mixing time of biodiesel is shorter than that of diesel
The apparent time of combustion (ACT) for biodiesel is shorter than
that of diesel engine
The lower heating value of diesel requires longer injection duration to
introduce same quantity of energy
Relation between the injection time of the two fuels

The experimental value obtained is 0.87
It signifies that it have shorter combustion period
It justifies the early end of combustion
Two situation has been observed i.e for tmixing and
for tinjection
Shorter combustion
Longer combustion
Universal methodology used based on practical and robust
parameter which includes broad range of operating condition

Biodiesel have faster combustion process and slight increase
in indicated efficiency

Lower emission of CO2 , CO and UHC. But NOx emission
increased for bio diesel

Mixing time shorter and faster combustion , these results
are valid for conventional and low pressure combustion

It is a promising fuel for HSDI diesel engines operating with
current and future contents
Comprehensive study of biodiesel fuel for HSDI engines
in conventional and low temperature combustion
Bernardo Tormos*, Ricardo Novella, Antonio Garca,
Kevin Gargar
CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, ES, Campus de Vera, s/n, Edificio 6D.
Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Espana
Collected from journal ELSEVIER