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Community Organizing
as part of
Community Health Development
(CHD)

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Community Health Development is both a


means and an end towards achieving health
as total well being and not just the absence
of disease.

CHD is based on the Primary Health Care


(PHC) philosophy and approach.

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The module on CHD Principles and Practices


includes the definition of PHC as defined in
the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978.

A most recent review of the PHC as a


philosophy and strategy to attain health for
all, emphasizes these concepts of health
care: (WHO, 2002)

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Health care is not just about doctors and


drugs; it is about people acting for their
own well-being

Health care is not just the obligation of


governments; it is the responsibility of
society as a whole

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Health care is not just fighting disease; it is


about dealing with the constant changes in
social systems and institutional structures

Health care is not just about delivering and


using services; it addresses all factors
affecting health status

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CHD is a process of implementing PHC with


community organizing as its major strategy
and approach.

As a process, it aims to achieve community-


managed health care.

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CHD as implemented in the WHSMP-PC


experience, incorporates gender
mainstreaming and the focus is women’s
health.

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Community Development
as end goal of
Community Organizing

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Community Development (CD) is the end goal of


community organizing and all other efforts
towards uplifting the status of the poor and
marginalized.

Only when the participation of the basic sector or


stakeholders is elicited can development be
meaningful and sustained by the basic sectors
themselves.

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“Community development” will have to be


defined and visualized by the community
members and their participation is
important in the attainment of this vision.

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Community development entails a process of :

-assessment of current situation,


-the identification of needs,
-deciding on appropriate courses of actions or
responses,
-mobilization of resources to address these needs,
-and monitoring and evaluation by the people.

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Community Organizing and the


Nursing Profession

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One of the roles of Public Health Nurses is


Community Organizer and as such, nurses
work with the local government in
facilitating Community Health through
Community Organizing.

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The nursing curriculum includes Community


Development and COPAR as stated in the
CHED’s Instructional standards for
Nursing Education.

Student nurses with their clinical instructor


act as facilitator of CO in selected
barangays following the COPAR process.

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In this way, the Schools of Nursing act as one


of the NGO’s who reach out and help in the
implementation of the WHO in achieving
health for all especially to those who are in
the remote areas.

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IMPORTANCE OF
COMMUNITY
ORGANIZING

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IMPORTANCE

 CO is a promising tool for achieving PHC (Primary


Health Care) goals of self-reliance and self-determination.

 CO is a method to generate community participation and


prepare people towards management of community
program.

 CO is an alternative to situations wherein health


interventions in PHC do not require direct involvement of
modern medical practitioners.

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IMPORTANCE

 Through CO, community resources are mobilized for


selected health services.

 CO also improves both project’s effectiveness, during


implementation and ultimate impact.

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EMPHASIS OF CO IN PHC
 Community working to solve its own problem.

 Direction is established internally rather than


externally.

 Development and implementation of a specific


project is less important than the development of
the capacity of the community to establish the
project.

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EMPHASIS OF CO IN PHC

 Consciousness-raising involves perceiving health


and medical care within the total structures of the
society.

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OBJECTIVES

 To make people aware of social realities toward


the development of local initiative, optimal use of
human, technical, and material resources,
strengthening of people’s capacities.

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OBJECTIVES

 To form structures that uphold the people’s basic


interests as oppressed and deprived sectors of the
community, and as people bound by the interest to
serve the people.

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OBJECTIVES

 To initiate the responsible actions intended to


address holistically the various community health
and social problems.

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PRINCIPLES

 People especially the most oppressed, exploited, and


deprived sectors are open to change, have the capacity
to change, and are able to bring about change.

 CO should bring about structures which adhere to this


principle such that power resides to the people,
development is from the people to the people, people’s
participation is always stressed.

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PRINCIPLES

 CO should be based on the interest of the poorest


sectors of society.

 CO should lead to a self-reliant community and


society.

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PARTICIPATORY ACTION
RESEARCH
 DEFINITION

PAR is an investigation of the problems and issues


concerning the life and environment of the
underprivileged in society by way of a research
collaboration with the under privileged whose
representatives participate in the actual research process
as equal partners.

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CENTRAL ELEMENT OF PAR

 PARTICIPATION

Is an active process whereby the expected


beneficiaries of research are the main actors in the
entire research process, they act as researchers
and facilitators.

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PAR OBJECTIVES

 Encourages consciousness of their sufferings and


develop competence for changing their situations.

 Help in organization-building by harnessing both


human and material resources in responding to
community needs.

 Enhances the knowledge of the researchers and


the community on the social reality before them.
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THE PAR PROCESS
I. Preparatory Phase
a. Immersion with the community.

During the immersion, the students will be living


with selected foster families and learn to
integrate with the whole community for
at least four weeks.

This would be the actual application of the


knowledge, skills, and attitudes in dealing with
the family and the community as a whole.
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What is community immersion
program?
• Community Immersion Program (CIP) is the
Community Health Nursing Practicum for
nursing students, an integral part of
Community Health Nursing (CHN).

• It is an experience designed to enable the


students to apply the concepts of Primary
Health Care (PHC) and Community
Organizing (CO) in a real community set-up.

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IMPORTANCE OF CIP

 Through CIP the people will realize the importance


of self awareness about health and wellness. And,

 Through CIP the people will realize the importance


of self-reliance making them more productive, thus
improving their quality of life in the community.

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THE PAR PROCESS

b. Stages

1. Preliminary observation of study areas.


2. Selection of the research team.
3. Choice and definition of the theme.
4. Training of the local researchers.

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THE PAR PROCESS

II. Operational Phase-data gathering

III. Collective data synthesis and analysis

IV. Dissemination and research utilization

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