Sunteți pe pagina 1din 30

Circles, Parabolas, Ellipses, and

Hyperbolas
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Table of Contents
Title Slide
Equations of the Curves centered at the origin (,!
Equations for Curves not centered at the origin
Circles
Parabolas
Ellipse
Hyperbolas
Exa"ple # Circle
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple # Circle
Exa"ple % Parabola
Solution to Exa"ple % Parabola
Exa"ple & Ellipse
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple & Ellipse
Exa"ple ' Hyperbola
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple ' Hyperbola
Proble" #
Proble" %
Proble" &
Proble" '
(ore Practice
)eferences
Table of Contents
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
Equations of the Curves
centered at the origin (,!
*
Circle

*
Parabola
or
*
Ellipse
$here a+b+
*
Hyperbola
or
#
%
%
%
%
= +
b
y
a
x
#
%
%
%
%
=
b
y
a
x
#
%
%
%
%
=
b
x
a
y
%
ax y =
%
ay x =
% % %
r y x = +
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Equations for Curves
not centered at the origin
*
Circle
Centered at (h, ,!
*
Parabola
or
*
Ellipse
$here a+b+
Hyperbola
or centered at (h, ,!
% % %
! ( ! ( r k y h x = +
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

b
k y
a
h x
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

a
h x
b
k y
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

b
k y
a
h x
k h x a y + + =
%
! ( k h y a x + + =
%
! (
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Circles
Circles are a special type of ellipses- There is a center that is the
sa"e distance fro" every point on the dia"eter- .n the equation
the center is at (h, ,!- The distance fro" the center to any point
on the line is called the radius of the circle- /ro" the equation to
find the radius you ta,e the square root of r
%
-
% % %
! ( ! ( r k y h x = +
% % %
r y x = +
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Parabolas
0 parabola is a curve that is oriented either up, do$n, left, or right- The vertex
of the parabola is at (h, ,!- .n the equation the h value added or subtracted to x
"oves the parabola left and right- .f you subtract the value of h the parabola
"oves to the right- .f you add the value of h the parabola "oves to the left- The
parabola can be "ade s,innier and $ider by changing the value of a in the
equation- .f a is a $hole nu"ber the parabola $ill beco"e s,innier1 if it2s a
fraction the parabola $ill beco"e $ider- 3hen you add or subtract a value of k
the parabola "oves up or do$n by the value- Parabolas are sy""etrical across
the line through the vertex of the parabola-
k h x a y + + =
%
! (
k h y a x + + =
%
! (
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Ellipse
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

b
k y
a
h x
#
%
%
%
%
= +
b
y
a
x
The center of the ellipse is at (h, ,!- The radius of ellipses are not a constant
distance fro" the center- To find the distance to the curve fro" the center you have
to find the distance fro" the center to the curve for the x and y separately, these
points are called vertices- The vertices are on the "a4or axis and "inor axis- The
"a4or axis is the longer axis and the "inor axis is the shorter axis through the
center of the ellipse- To find the distance fro" the center in the x direction you ta,e
the square root of a
2
- To find the distance fro" the center in the y direction you
ta,e the square root of b
2
- 5ou then $ill have t$o points on the x direction and t$o
points in the y direction and you use these four points to dra$ your ellipse- Ellipses
are sy""etrical across both of there axis6s-
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Hyperbola
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

b
k y
a
h x
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

a
h x
b
k y
Hyperbolas loo, li,e t$o parabolas opening in opposite directions- The equations of the
asy"ptotes are y7 , 8 (b9a!(x:h!- The asy"ptotes help you to graph the hyperbola- The
center of the hyperbola is also at (h, ,!- The vertices of the hyperbola depend on $hether
the hyperbolas open left and right or up and do$n- 5ou can deter"ine $hich $ay the
hyperbola opens by loo,ing to see if the x or y ter" has a negative sign- .n the equation in
the upper left corner the y ter" has the negative and since the y has the negative the
hyperbolas open left and right- 3hen opening left and right the vertices are (h8a, ,!- /or
the equation in the upper right corner the x value has the negative sign $hich "eans that
the hyperbola opens up and do$n- The vertices for an equation that opens up and do$n
are (h, ,8b!-
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Exa"ple #
Circle
;raph the follo$ing equation of a circle
(x:&!
%
8(y:&!
%
7#<
0lso find $ithout graphing

the center for the circle


and

the radius for the circle-


5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple #
Circle
#- /irst $e start by loo,ing at the equation and co"paring the given equation to
the standard equation- The equation is (x:&!
%
8(y:&!
%
7#<- 3e ,no$ the for"
of the equation of a circle is (x:h!
%
8(y:,!
%
7r
%
-/ro" the t$o equations $e
,no$ that h7& and ,7&, therefore our center is (&,&!- 3e have #<7 r
%
so r7'-
%- Since $e ,no$ our center and radius $e can start to graph our function- 3e
start by graphing the center of the circle by plotting (&,&!
&- Next $e use the radius to find the four points on the circle that are to the
direct right, left, up, and do$n fro" the center- 5ou find these points by
adding9 subtracting the radius to the value of h, and then adding9 subtracting
the radius fro" the value of ,- So you have (&:', &! 7 (:#,&!, (&8', &! 7
(=,&!, (&, &:'! 7 (&, :#!, and (&, &8'! 7 (&, =!-
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple #
Continued
'-Next you plot the four
points that you 4ust
found-
>-Then connect the four
points around the
center to create your
circle-
8
6
4
2
-2
-5 5
r
C: (3.00, 3.00)
E: (-1.00, 3.00)
D: (3.00, -1.00)
B: (7.00, 3.00)
A: (3.00, 7.00)
B
E
A
D
C
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Exa"ple %
Parabola
;raph the follo$ing equation of the parabola-
57 %(x8%!
%
8 #
/or the above equation find the follo$ing before graphing the
equation

The vertex of the parabola-

.s the parabola s,innier or $ider then a standard parabola-

3hat $ay does the parabola open?


5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Solution to Exa"ple %
Parabola
#- /irst $e loo, at the equation co"pared to the standard parabola equation- 57%(x8%!
%
8#
57a (x 8 h!
%
8 ,- So a 7 %, h 7 %, and , 7 #-
%- @y loo,ing at the equation the vertex of this equation is (:%, #!-
&- 3e ,no$ that a 7 % $hich is a $hole nu"ber and $hole nu"bers "a,e the parabola
s,inner- 3e also ,no$ that since a is positive and that the equation equals y that the
parabola $ill open up-
'- To graph the equation the first thing that $e do is plot the vertex of the parabola-
>- Next $e need to pic, a value of x that is an equal distance fro" the center to solve for y-
these t$o y values should be the sa"e since the parabola is sy""etrical through the
center- Aets use x7:& and x7:#- So for x7:&, y7%(:&8%
!%8
# 7 & and for x7:#, y7 %(:
#8%
!%8
#7 &
So $e have the points (:&,&! and (:#,&!-
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Solution to Exa"ple % Continued
<- Next $e pic, at least t$o "ore values of x
to find values of y2s for to be able to graph
the parabola accurately- Aets use x 7 :' and
x7 -
So for x 7 :', y 7 %(:'8%!
%8
# 7 %(:%!
%
8#7 B
and for x 7 , y 7 %(8%!
%8
#7 B-
So $e have the points (:',B! and (,B!-
=- No$ $e can graph the center of the
parabola (:%,#! and the points that $e have
found to lie on the parabola (:#,&!, (:&,&!,
(:',B!, and (,B!-
C- Next $e can connect the pints and continue
the ends of the curve up to create the
parabola-
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Exa"ple &
Ellipse
;raph the /ollo$ing equation
/or the above equation find $ithout graphing
*
The center of the ellipse
*
State the "a4or and "inor axis
*
/ind the vertices of the ellipse-
#
B
! & (
'
! # (
% %
=

+
y x
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple &
Ellipse
#- /irst $e co"pare the equation of the ellipse to the standard equation of the ellipse to
find the values of h, ,, a, and b-


@y co"paring the equations $e ,no$ that ,7&, h7#, a7%, and b7&-
%- 3e ,no$ that the center is at (h, ,! so our center is at (#,&!-
&- 3e can also deter"ine our "a4or axis and "inor axis by loo,ing at our values of a and
b- The larger value of a and b is associated $ith the "a4or axis and the s"aller value is
associated $ith the "inor axis- .n this case b is larger then a, so b is associated $ith the
"a4or axis- This "eans that the "a4or axis is the dia"eter of the ellipse that is parallel
to the y axis- The value of a is s"aller, so it is associated $ith the "inor axis and this
axis is the dia"eter parallel to the x axis-
'- 3e find our vertices by adding and subtracting our value of a to the x value of the
center and then adding and subtracting our value of b to the y value of the center- So in
this case (#8%, &! 7 (&,&!, (#:%, &! 7( :#,&!, (#, &8&! 7 (#,<!, and (#, &:&! 7(#, !-
>- No$ $e can graph the ellipse-
#
B
! & (
'
! # (
% %
=

+
y x
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

b
k y
a
h x
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple & Continued
<- /irst you can plot the center
of the ellipse-
=- No$ plot the four vertices-
C- Then connect the four vertices
$ith a curved line in the
shape of an ellipse
B- 5ou can no$ dra$ in and
label your "a4or and "inor
axis if you need to-
6
4
2
-2
5
Minor
Major
D: (-1.00, 3.00)
E: (1.00, 0.00)
B: (3.00, 3.00)
A: (1.00, 6.00)
C: (1.00, 3.00)
D
B
E
A
C
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Exa"ple '
Hyperbola
;raph the follo$ing equations
@efore graphing the equation find
*
The center
*
The asy"ptotes and their equations
*
The vertices of the hyperbola
*
3hat $ay does the hyperbola open?
#
B
! & (
'
! % (
% %
=

y x
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple '
Hyperbola
#- /irst $e co"pare the given equation of the hyperbola $ith the standard equation to find the
value of h, ,, a, and b-

.n this
equation $e can see that h7%, ,7&, a7%, and b7&-
%- Next $e ,no$ that the center of a hyperbola is (h, ,!- So for this hyperbola the center is at
(%,&!-
&- Next $e can find the values of the asy"ptotes $hich are 89: b9a- 3e can also find the
equations of the asy"ptotes $hich are in the for" ,8(b9a!(x:h!- So for this hyperbola the
values of the asy"ptotes are 8&9%- The equations for the asy"ptotes are &8(&9%!(x:%!-
'- Next $e need to deter"ine $hat direction the hyperbola opens- 3e ,no$ that the $ay the
hyperbola opens depends on $hich value x or y has the negative sign associated $ith it- .n
this equation the y value has the negative sign associated $ith it- This tells us that the
hyperbolas open left and right-
>- Since $e ,no$ $hich direction that the hyperbola opens $e can find our vertices- 5ou find
the vertices by adding and subtracting the value of a or b to the center- Since the hyperbola
opens left and right $e ,no$ that $e need to add and subtract a value of a to the center- So
$e have (%8%, &! 7(',&! and (%:%, &! 7 (,&!-
#
B
! & (
'
! % (
% %
=

y x
#
! ( ! (
%
%
%
%
=

b
k y
a
h x
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Ho$ to Solve Exa"ple ' Continued
<- To graph the hyperbolas $e need to
graph our asy"ptotes-
=- No$ $e need to plot the t$o vertices-
C- 3e can no$ dra$ in our hyperbola by
dra$ing t$o parabola loo,ing curves
through the vertices that get close to the
asy"ptotes but never touch the
asy"ptotes and so that the parabola
shaped curves open left and right-
10
8
6
4
2
-2
-4
5
C: (2.00, 3.00)
V1: (4.00, 3.00)
V2: (0.00, 3.00)
V2 V1
C
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
Proble" #
Clic, on the correct ans$er to "ove to the next question-
3hat type of ob4ect9curve is produced by the equation belo$
curve? 0lso find the center fro" the equation-
#
B
! ' (
&<
! < (
% %
=

+
y x
0- Circle (<,'!
@- Ellipse (<,%!
C- Ellipse (<,'!
D- Hyperbola (<,'!
E- Circle (<,%!
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
Proble" %
Clic, on the correct ans$er to continue-
3hat is the center of this hyperbola? 3hat are the equations for
the asy"ptotes fro" this hyperbolic equation?
#
%>
! B (
&<
! = (
% %
=

y x
0- Center (=,B! 0sy"ptotes B8(&<9%>!(x:=! and B:(&<9%>!(x:=!
@- Center (<,>! 0sy"ptotes >8(&<9%>!(x:<! and >:(&<9%>!(x:<!
C- Center (>,<! 0sy"ptotes %>8(=9>!(x:&<! and %>:(=9>!(x:&<!
D- Center (=,B! 0sy"ptotes B8(<9>!(x:=! and B:(<9>!(x:=!
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
Proble" &
Clic, on the correct ans$er to "ove to the next proble"-
3hat type of ob4ect9 curve is given by the equation belo$? 3hat is
the center of the equation?
# ! % ( &
%
+ + = x y
0- Circle Center (&,%!
@- Ellipse Center
(%,#!
C- Parabola Center (%,#!
D- Parabola Center (&,%!
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
Proble" '
Clic, the correct ans$er to continue-
3hat is the center and the radius of the follo$ing circle equation?
# ! # (
% %
= + y x
0- Center (#,#! )adius 7 #
@- Center (#,#! )adius 7 #
C- Center (,#! )adius 7 #
D- Center (#,! )adius 7 #
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
(ore Practice
Print and co"plete the follo$ing $or,sheets-
3riting Equations fro" ;raphs
;raphing Curves
Equations of Curves
5
( )
( )
( )
( )
Next
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents
)eferences
@arnett, )ay"ond 0-, (ichael )- Eiegler, and Farl E- @yleen- PreCalculus graphs and
"odels- @ostonG (c;ra$ Hill, %>-
Calvert, H- @- IEllipseJ- %>- & Dec-%B httpG99"ysite-du-edu9K4calvert9"ath9
ellipse-ht"
Da$,ins, Paul- I0lgebra-J %B- & Dec- %B LhttpG99tutorial
-"ath-la"ar-edu9classes9alg9hyperbolas-aspx+-
Picture fro" google i"agesG
LhttpG99$$$-stic,ergiant-co"9(erchant%9i"gs9'>9ss&>M'>-4peg+
10
8
6
4
Table of
( ) ( )
Contents