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Chemical Formulae and Equation

B. The mole and the


number of particles
The Concept of Mole
According to SI ( International System of Units)

One mole is an amount of substance that contains
as many particles as the number of atoms in
exactly 12.000 g carbon-12, which is 6.02 x 10
23

particles.
1 mol = 6.02 x 10
23
particles
= 602 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 particles

The value of 6.02 x 10
23
also recognized as the
Avogadro constant, N
A.

Avogadro Constant
Avogadro Constant is defined as the number of
particles in one mole of a substance which is
6.02 x 10
23
mol
1
.
This means:
1 mole of iron = 6.02 x 10
23
iron atoms
1 mole of water = 6.02 x 10
23
water molecules
1 mole of ammonia = 6.02 x 10
23
ammonia
molecules

Caution
The particles need to be carefully specified

ATOMI C SUBSTANCES
All metal eg sodium, copper, iron
All noble gases eg helium, argon, neon
Certain non-metals element eg. carbon & silicon

MOLECULAR SUBSTANCES
some non-metal element eg H
2
, O
2
, F
2.
Cl
2
, S
8
, P
4
All covalent compound eg water and carbon dioxide.

I ONI C SUBSTANCES
All ionic compounds eg. Sodium chloride, zinc bromide

Mole and the Number of Particles
Number
of Mol
Number
of
Particles
Avogadro constant
Avogadro constant
Example of Calculation 1
Calculate the number of particles contain
in 0.4 mol of chlorine atom .

Solution
Number of chlorine atom
= number of moles x N
A

= 0.4 x 6.02 x 10
23
= 2.408 x 10
23
atom
Example of Calculation 2
Calculate the number of moles represented
by 1.204 x 10
23
sodium atom.
Solution:

mol 2 . 0
10 02 . 6
10 204 . 1
N
atom sodium of Number
atom sodium of moles of number The
23
23
A

Example of Calculation 3
Calculate the number of molecules that
contain in 0.05 moles of iodine, I
2
.

Solution:
The number of iodine, I
2
molecule
= number of moles x N
A

= 0.05 x 6.02 x 10
23
molecules
= 3.01 x 10
22
molecules


Particles in Molecular Substance
No. of moles
molecular
substance
No. of
molecule
No of atom
N
A

N
A

( depends on
chemical formula )
( depends on
chemical formula )
Particles in Ionic Substance
No. of moles
ionic
substance
No. of Unit
No of ions
N
A

N
A

( depends on
chemical formula )
( depends on
chemical formula )
Example of Calculation 1
Calculate the number of fluorine atom contains in 0.3 mol of
fluorine gas, F
2.


Solution:
The number of fluorine molecules, F
2

= number of moles x N
A

= 0.3 x 6.02 x 10
23

1 molecule of F
2
= 2 fluorine atom

The number of fluorine atom, F


= 2 x 0.3 x 6.02 x 10
23
= 3.612 x 10
23
Example of Calculation 2
A sample of ammonia gas contains of
1.806 x 10
24
molecules of ammonia.

Calculate the number of
a)moles of ammonia
b)nitrogen atom
c)Moles of hydrogen atom
that contain in the sample

Solution
mol 3
10 02 . 6
10 806 . 1
N
molecule NH of Number
molecules NH of moles ) a (
23
24
A
3
3

Solution
(b) A molecule of ammonia, NH
3
consists
1 nitrogen,N atom

Thus,
1.806 x 10
24
molecules of ammonia
consists 1.806 x 10
24
nitrogen atom
Solution
(c) A molecule of ammonia, NH
3
consists 3
hidrogen,H atom
1 mole of NH
3
molecule 3 moles of H atom
3 moles of NH
3
3 3 moles of H atom
9 moles of H atom
Example of Calculation 3
Calculate the number of hydroxide ions in 0.5 mole
of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)
2
.

Units of Mg(OH)
2
= 0.5 x N
A

= 0.5 x 6.02 x 10
23
1 unit of Mg(OH)
2
consists of 2 hydroxide(OH

) ions
Thus,
Number of hydroxide ions, OH

= 2 x 0.5 x 6.02 x 10
23
= 6.02 x 10
23