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ADM510

ORAGNIZATONAL BEHAVIOR
TOPIC 3: PERCEPTION AND LEARNING

TUTOR:
MADAM. AZIZAN ZAINUDDIN

PREPARED BY:
AFIQAH BINTI MAD KASSIM (2013455736)
FIQRIN HANIS BINTI ROSLI (2013488894)
INTAN SURAIYAH BINTI RAMAT (2013460818)
Welcome fellow classmate,
In our discussion today, we will be discussing on the
topic of Perception and Learning (Topic 3).
We will be answering two question as assigned by our
tutor Madam Azizan.
Also, at every end of our answer, weve provide a task
for all of you to participate and leave a comment regarding
topic related. Also there shall be a special task to a specific
person.
Lastly, we have also provide a video (question 2 related)
for all of you to watch in the link given. Click on the word
Link as highlighted or you can also click on the URL address
attached on iLearn. Have fun and good luck !
Thank you.
QUESTION 1:



Why is it critically important to understand
individual perception, attitudes, decisions and
behavior before assigning someone a specific
role in an organization?
What is self concept??
It is an individual self belief (self confidence)
and also self evaluations (self assessment).
(Von Glinow and Mcshane, Organizational
Behavior,7
th
ed)
Self concept is more about people to who I
am and how they think about themselves.
What they thought at last will helps them in
shaping personality and decision-making.

Characteristic of self concept
1st: Complexity
complexity refers to the numbers of
discrete identities or roles that they know
about themselves
2
nd
: Consistency
High self concept consistency happen when
individual perceived roles with similar
personality traits, values and other attributes
and vice versa for low self concept
consistency

3
rd
:Clarity
It explain that people have confident, clear
and fix self concept. clarity happen when
we self-assured about our personality
People have low self concept
complexity when their own important
identities cannot be interconnected
with other situation for example an
engineer only know about machines.
Low self concept consistency happen
when there is dynamic of personality
for example you are an exacting
architect but you try to be a risk
oriented driver
Self concept clarity increase when
people gain more experience. As we
grow older, we become more
assured about likes and dislikes
Self Concept Characteristics and
Concept
Self Enhancement
The deepest urge in human nature is the desire to
be important
People always try to perceived themselves and
also others.
People expectation about themselves are always
above the moderate level. They believe that they
can achieved beyond their actual abilities and this
attribute their successes personal motivation or
ability and blaming the external factors for their
mistakes.
Self Enhancement in Organizational
Settings
When an individual intensify their self
concept, they will experience better mental
and physical health and adjustment.
For example, if we know who we are and
position in an organization, we will adhere
to our responsibility and there will be less
stress as we wont conflict with unrelated
responsibilities.
Positive
consequences
Self enhancement causes
people to overestimates for
their future returns and they
will be less openness to
criticism.
Negative
consequences
Self Verification
Self verification explained that people
motivated to maintain their existing self
concept.
Self verification provides important anchor
that guides their thought and actions.
In other words, you let people know about
your characteristics and let other people
aware that they have to perform up to your
standard when working together.
Perceptual process will
be affected because
employees easy to
remember any
information that
interconnected with
their self concept.
Eg: For example, an
employer assigned a task
to an employee who he
believe can perform the
work as the employee
self-verified himself as a
meticulous person.
When an individual has a
clearer self concept,
people around us will try
to avoid any negative
feedback that contradict
with that self concept.
For example, an
employer know that his
employee is punctual
and dedicated. He will
less consciously accept
feedback that
contradicts his employee
self concept.
People are more
motivated with
others that have
rigid self-views
and this will help
them to get along
with boss and the
team members.

Self Evaluation
Self Esteem likely known as self confidence.
Theory about self esteem : People have higher self-
esteem when they believe they are connected to and
accepted by others. They also less influenced by others
and think more rationally.
Self esteem is internal factor which brings and predicts
the attitude and behaviors, so people who have high self-
esteem will tend to have a good attitude like a good
student and a good parent.

Self- Efficacy a persons belief that he/she can
successfully complete a task where those with high self-
efficacy have a can-do attitude.
They believe they posses the energy, ability, role
perception and resources to perform the task.
Theory of self-efficacy people with higher general self-
efficacy have a more positive over all self-evaluation.


Locus of control a person general beliefs about the amount of
control he or she has over personal life events.
It divides into two which is internal and external.
Individuals with an internal locus of control believe their
personal characteristics like ability and motivation will
determine lifes outcomes (good or bad)
Individual with external locus of control believe that events that
happened in their life are due to the fate, luck or determined by
the conditions in the external environment.
Theory of locus of control people with more internal locus of
control have a more positive self- evalutaion, more successful,
earn more money and can perform well in their task. It is
because internal locus of control is the important internal factor
of one self that will determine the life event that will going to
happen.
Social Self
Personal identity internal self concept
It is an attributes that make one individual differ and unique from other individual.
It is your own personality and nothing to do with the social groups you are in and deal
with.
For eg : generous, disciplined, perfectionist, talented, outspoken.
Social identity external self concept
It is about how one individual associate with others. People define themselves by the
groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment.
Factors determining that you are identified or belong as a member of that particular
group, are gender (female or male) , age (old, middle age and young), ethnicity (race),
status (minority or majority).
Another factor, people sometimes describe themselves by where they work because of
their employer has a good reputation (this is where you determine your identity to what
kind of society you are belong to )
Footnote : Students can refer this subtopic on our question 2 regarding the personal
identity and social identity to understand better and have a clear picture about these.
PERCEPTION
Perception is closely related to attitudes. Perception
is the process of receiving information about, and
which organisms interpret and making sense of the
world around us.
In other words, a person is confronted with a
situation or stimuli. The person interprets the stimuli
into something meaningful to him or her based on
prior experiences. However, what an individual
interprets or perceives may be substantially different
from reality.
Social Perception
Social perception looks on how an individual sees others
and how others perceive an individual.
This can be accomplished through various means such as
classifying an individual based on 5 classes :
I. A single characteristic (halo effect).
II. Evaluating a persons characteristics by comparison to
others (contrast effect).
III. Perceiving others in ways that really reflect a perceivers
own attitudes and beliefs (projection).
IV. Judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the
group to which that person belongs (stereotyping).
V. Causing a person to act erroneously based on another
persons perception (pygmalion effect), or controlling
another persons perception of oneself (impression
management).
Halo Effect
It well described when an individual draws a general
impression about another person based on a single
characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance.
The perceiver may evaluate the other individual high on many
traits because of his or her belief that the individual is high in
one trait.
For example : if an employee performs a difficult accounting
task well due to the managers belief of the employees high
intelligence, the manager may also mistakenly perceive that
the employee having competencies in other areas such as
management or technology.
Contrast Effect - relates to how an individual is perceived in
relation to others around him or her. The contrast effect not
only applies to the perception of attractiveness, but it has also
been shown to influence self-esteem, public self consciousness
and social anxiety.

Projection is the attribution of ones own attitudes and beliefs
onto others. All of us are guilty of unconsciously projecting our
own beliefs onto others. It allows an individual to perceive
others in ways that really reflect oneself because, in general,
people are in favor of those who are most like themselves.
Stereotyping
It is a perceptual process of assigning traits to people based on
their membership in a social category.
Stereotyping can be positive because it allows us to organize
a very complex world but it may be considered negative if
used as overly generalized views about groups of individuals.
It is easy shown in the example of gender stereotyping where
it provide specific expectations of male and female behavior.
When those expectations are violated (as in the case of a
women acting assertively), it results in a negative label being
applied to describe the woman.
Pygmalion Effect
The pygmalion effect or self-fulfilling prophecy, describes a
persons behavior that is consistent with another individuals
perception.
In other words, once an expectation is made known by
another person, an individual will have the tendency to
behave in ways consistent with the expectation. This can
have negative or positive results.
For example : If a manager sets high standards for a
subordinates performance, he or she will respond accordingly
with high performance. If a manager sets low standards for a
subordinates performance because the subordinate is viewed
as lacking in ability and/or motivation, the resulting work
performance will be low.
=> Therefore, managers expectations directly influence
subordinates performance.
CONCLUSION
It is essential for a manager to know the behaviour
and actions of the employee. This is because, every
employee brings a different personality and there is
a variety that sometimes we do not aware about it
(complexity). Thus, the manager should be able to
identify clear, stable and rigid self-concept of the
employees (Clarity). After the manager succeed in
identifying the self-concept of the employees, the
manager will be able to assigned the task based on
similar personal traits and values (consistency).
It is true that most of people try to rate
themselves above the average level but the
employer himself cannot predict the real
average level of a person (self enhancement).
The employer should not put high expectation
on the employees to perform excellently when
assigning the task. Due to high expectation the
employer may deal with frustration and less
openness to criticism (negative consequences of
self enhancement).
The employer might let the coworkers know
about the characteristics or term and condition
that must be fulfill by the employees (self-
verification) because it might help the
employees to guide their thoughts and action
when completing a task given. As from the
employer insight, this will allow him to expect
what to be expected aligned with his employees
self-concept.
The employer should really understand the employees on how
the employer sees and perceived the employees before assigning
certain task (perception). What kind of social perception that the
employer looks and perceived the employees to perform certain
task ?
For example, An employer of the Accountancy Agency required
to promote the job one of the employee into high level field
(audit field) with certain qualifications such as working
experience, high qualification and strength. So how he perceived
his employees in order to fulfill those requirements ? This is to
ensure his employees can perform the task well (self-efficacy) and
adapt with the organizations environment either condusive or
hostile.
On how the employer perceived the employees attitudes and
behavior, he must know how the employees develop themselves,
the self-esteem that they have to bring and hold certain position
and tasks. High self-esteem of the employees will make the
employer feels easy to work and build the network relationship
like easy to communicate and coorporate together which this will
result in accepting each others for both sides in an organization.
Another important side of how the employer can critically
understand their employees is on the personal identity of one
employees has and social identity they are belong to before the
employer assigned specific task. This is to avoid misunderstanding
that will occur later in the process of completing the task.
Eg for personal identity: If the employer knows the employees
personal identity is a multi tasker and organized person, he can
solely assigned one of his employees variety of tasks at one time
where he also be able to organize them one by one and
accordingly
Eg for social identity: The employer wont give heavy or difficult
tasks to a group of new workers (juniors) in early stage. He will
pass them to the experienced workers (seniors).

So, this is why a manager (employer) is important to critically
understand individuals perception, attitude, behavior and
decisions before he can decide and assigned his employees to do
and perform specific role in the organisation.
Dear Haziq Zafari and Aiman
Hanis, how do you determine or
in what characteristic you
expected from your employee to
be, before you have to assigned
him/her a specific task ?

Others are welcome to give
feedback
QUESTION 2:
Contrast Personal and Social
identity. Do you define yourself in
terms of the university or college you
attend? Why or why not ? What
implication does your response have
for the future of your university or
college ?
Contrasting between Personal Identity and
Social Identity
Personal Identity Social Identity
Also known as Internal Self concept Or know as External Self concept
Personal Identity is an attribute that
make us unique and distinct from people
in social group
Where people define themselves by the
groups to which they belong or have an
emotional attachment
Something about ourselves as an
individual without reference to a larger
group
Complex combination of many
membership arrange in a hierarchy of
importance
People who with Personal Identity
defined themselves by their personal
identities speak out more frequently
against the majority and are less
motivated to follow the terms and wishes
People who with Social Identity defined
themselves by their social self are more
motivated to abide by the teams norms
and more easily influence by peer
pressure.
Do we defined ourselves in terms of our
university/college we attend?
Yes, we do defined ourselves in terms of our
university, which is University Technology of
Mara (UiTM).
Why?
Firstly because of its ethnicity that exist as the
nature of UiTM. UiTM is as the only local
universities that only open its admissions to
Bumiputeras.
As an implication from the ethnicity, this will
generate a competitive environment between
UiTM students with other universities students
of among other races than Bumiputera.
Next is because of its learning methodology.
UiTM has more practicality in its learning
methods or module. It is more toward hands-on
rather then theoretical studies. Which allows for
the student to enhance their creativity and
innovation as how demanded by the current
market. The students of UiTM were taught to
prepare themselves in their soon working life.

Besides, in terms of language used in
communication. UiTM students were taught to
learn in English language regardless of any
course. Thus, making English as the medium
language in communicating between lectures
and students. UiTM is also the only local
Universities that implemented the language as
medium of communication.

Last reason is the ethics, etiquette and values
implemented and instill to the student of UiTM.
There are many terms ethics and etiquette that
the institute practices, dress ethics, working
ethics and many more. And that the institute
constantly instill the value of patriotism,
competitiveness and self readiness.This will
indirectly contribute in elevating the good name
of UiTM and gives good perception.

And the implication of our response have for
the future of our university maybe.
The implication for the future of our
university based on our response maybe,
UiTM graduates will become the most
employed fresh graduates in
comparison with other local university.
This is the effect of its learning
methodology where it concentrate their
student more to what is practical rather
than theoretical. Besides, most employer
nowadays are prone to employ fresh
graduates who are confident to
communicate in English as English is now
the International medium in
communication or in any businesses.


Another implication to the future of UiTM is
that, UiTM will be able to realize its mission,
vision and at the same time their long term
and short term goal. For example UiTMs
vision, which is to be one of leading
International class universities. Together along
making UiTM a broad-based university and
attain academic excellence to lead the
dynamism of indigenous (bumiputera) in every
profession in the international area.

Moreover, because of the various positive
values instilled by UiTM to its students
including the value of leadership and
competitiveness. It will be known in
generating great leaders of especially
bumiputera to the whole society. For
example, Datuk Seri Ahmad Farid Ridzuan
the CEO of Media Prima, the person who
manages one of the largest
telecommunication company.


Tell us what is your opinion, do you
define yourself by your
university/college? why?

Dear Alia Azmi and Azri Asyraf, if youre
a student from another university how
do you define a UiTM student ?

Feel free in sharing your own ideas.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME