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Management of Change

In institutional management, Management of

Change holds the key position all over the

The head of the institution occupies important
position in initiation and managing the
process of change
Head of the institute are accountable for
organizational growth and decay

Total Quality Management (TQM)

TQM means quality in all aspects of
The quality needs to be redefined from the
narrow criteria of achievement of students in
examinations to a holistic approach to quality of
life in schools.
The system as a whole has to be taken care.
Quality is not incidental or accidental.
It is a planned and deliberate process.
It should be on a continual basis

Industrial Product
- Several Attributes that determine

Functionality, durability, repairability, shape and size, design,
colour, uniqueness, cost, etc.
Quality depends upon perception
of the user or the customer

Service Sector:
- punctuality, time, cost,

courteousness, speed, accuracy etc.

- Quality depends upon clients
Education Sector

Parameters of Quality

Value for money

Continuous improvement

Quality Management Issues

Absolute versus Relative Quality
Absolute Quality: Last words,
highest standards,
uniqueness & prestigious,
very few people can afford
- Shaffers Pen & Rolls Royce Car
- Indian Institute of Technology in India

Relative Quality

- Several products, services or organizations are

compared at a given time
- Same organization over time
- be the best and stay there
- Best is absolute concept but the best among the
better ones gives the relativism
- for staying there need continuous move
- Comparing quality of a consumer product is a
reference to relative quality

TQM: Systems Thinking

Institution based management for

Each institution comprises several subcomponents
Inter-relationship and inter-dependence
Develop a holistic thinking
Look at the organization as a complete
organism (systems thinking)

Educational Institution as a System

Input process output Model

Identify Sub-systems & understand their
inter-relationships & interdependence

Vision Mission & Goals;

Personnel; finance;
Linkage & Interface;

Student Services;
Rules & Regulations;
Institution Building Process and

Managing People at work

Systems Thinking (contd.)

Sub-systems vary from one another but are

- finance, infrastructure: concrete & measurable
- Vision, mission & goals: abstract in nature

- Academic activities, students services, managing

people at work: organizational process

Systems Thinking (contd.)

Academic Management:

- Admission
- Curriculum

- Instruction
- Co-curricular activities
- Student Assessment

Systems Thinking (contd.)

Instruction contains:
- Classroom teaching,
- home assignments for students,

- project work,
- Lab. Practical,
- field visits, and
- Others
School should be seen as total organism, not as
fragments of activities and structure

Planning for Implementation

An Essay on the School

- Documentation of the perception of a

teachers & staff about the school
- Enormous difference in perception
- share & cross check each others belief &
bring it into open

Planning for Implementation (Contd.)

Identification of areas of improvement

- list the areas of improvement

- specify a minimum number of improvement
- compile and tabulate to find common &
divergent views
- discuss again to find out problem areas of
improvement in the school
- the exercise helps in diagnosing individual ans
collective shortfall and identifying common
areas of improvement

Planning for Implementation (Contd.)

Institutional assessment

- structured
- Qualitative and quantitative
- Pattern of growth can be diagnosed
- trend data assess changes and

Planning for Implementation (Contd.)

SWOT Analysis

- Tool for organizational diagnosis

- Useful for reflection

- Decision making
- Evaluation
- Whatever idea you wish to consider think

in terms of strength, weakness

opportunity & threat

Planning for Implementation (Contd.)

Vision, mission & goals

- build up a shared and acceptable

common vision, a mission and a set
of goals
- What would be your organization
after ten years
- After five years
- After three years

Planning for Implementation (Contd.)


Teacher Quality
Student Quality


5 years

3 years


Planning for Implementation (Contd.)


- All the goals and improvement cannot be

achieved at the same time

- Prioritize the activities
- Pick one or two items at a time

Planning for Implementation (Contd.)

Resource assessment and allocation

- four types of resources:

1. financial,
2. human,
3. infrastructural and
4. time
- allocate against each activity these

Planning for Implementation (Contd.)

Evaluation and Monitoring

- develop the mechanism of monitoring

activities at every step
- also mechanism of evaluation to assess
the success


It implies conversion of each of the

planned item into action

Concepts in Leadership
1 Designated leadership
Ascribed leader
2 Autocratic
Laissez Faire

Autocratic leader takes the decision and hands it

down to subordinates for implementation

Social setting is hierarchic & non- collegial

Democratic leader consults others on important

matters and takes collective decision

Laissez-Faire-leadership is indicated when things

are left to happen, often characterized by

Absence of initiative
Absence of intervention
Absence of Intervention
Absence of Monitoring

Leadership Styles
Telling Style:
High concern for task but low concern for for
Leader instructs to carry out the tasks
Specifies the time, method of carrying out the
Quality of the task output
Leader is prepared to stake relationship for
accomplishment of tasks
Hard-task master
Dictatorial style

Leadership Style (Contd.)

Selling Style
High Concern for task and high concern for
Leader ensures task accomplishnent with
predefined quality & time without staking
This is an important style when the principal
introduces innovation (Delphi Technique)

Leadership Style (Contd.)

Participating Style
High concern for relationship but low concern
for task
Reverse of telling style
Leader stakes task accomplishment for
maintaining good relationship
Mr.Nice man or Madam Nice
Leader participate in the task accomplishment
When routine, monotonous but necessary
work have to be done for the organization

Leadership Style (Contd.)

Low concern for relationship & low concern for

When things are allowed to happen
Laissez-Faire Not taking any responsibility of
Delegation is a purposeful decision

Situation Leadership & Style Preference

Style Preference
This style indicates the style of preference
Leader opts for one of the four styles
The most frequently chos

Style Flex
Style flex is indicated by the flexibility with
which one can change and adopt style as
required by a situation to be effective
Style Effectiveness
Choose right style according to the situation

Thank You