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SOLAS

The International Convention for the


Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is the
most important treaty protecting the
safety of merchant ships. The first
version of the treaty was passed in
1914 in response to the sinking of the
RMS Titanic. It prescribed numbers of
lifeboats and other emergency
equipment along with safety
procedures, including continuous radio
watches.
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Newer versions were adopted in 1929,


1948, 1960, and 1974. The 1960
Convention - which was activated in
1965 - was the first major achievement
for International Maritime Organization
(IMO) after its creation and
represented a massive advance in
updating commercial shipping
regulations and in staying up-to-date
with new technology and procedures in
the industry.
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The 1974 version simplified the


process for amending the treaty.
A number of amendments have
been adopted since. In particular,
amendments in 1988 based on
amendments of International
Radio Regulations in 1987
replaced Morse code with the
Global Maritime Distress Safety
System (GMDSS) and came into
force beginning 1 February 1992.
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"tacit acceptance"
The intention had been to keep the
convention up to date by periodic
amendments, but the procedure to
incorporate the amendments proved to
be very slow: it could take several
years for the amendments to be put
into action since countries had to give
notice of acceptance to IMO and there
was a minimum threshold of countries
and tonnage.
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"tacit acceptance"
The latest Convention in 1974
therefore included the "tacit
acceptance" procedure
whereby amendments enter
into force by default unless
nations file objections that
meet a certain number or
tonnage.
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LIFEBOAT
A lifeboat is a boat designed to save
the lives of people in trouble at sea.
The term is used for vessels carried by
ships to allow passengers and crew to
escape in an emergency. In Britain the
term is also used for special shorebased vessels manned by volunteers,
designed to quickly reach a ship or
individuals in trouble at sea. Both
ships' lifeboats and rescue lifeboats
may be rigid or inflatable vessels.
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Ship-launched lifeboats
These are designed to be lowered from
davits on a ship's deck. They are designed
to be unsinkable, with buoyancy that
cannot be damaged. The coverr is a storm
shelter and sunshade, can usually collect
rainwater, and is visible from the air.

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Ship-launched lifeboats
They usually carry flares and mirrors for
signaling, three days' worth of food and
water, oars, an engine, heater and basic
navigational equipment.
In recent history the boats have started to
be replaced by more modern and capable
designs that do not meet this minimal
definition.
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The International Convention for the


Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the
International Life-Saving Appliance
Code (LSA) require a specific list of
emergency equipment to be carried on
each lifeboat and liferaft used on
international voyages. Modern lifeboats
should also carry an Emergency
Position-Indicating Radio Beacon
(EPIRB) and either a radar reflector or
Search and Rescue Transponder
(SART).
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Modern life boats


Modern motor life boats (MLB)
originated as life boats that had
been modified with the addition of
an engine and provided more
power to get in and out of the
swell area inside the surf. They
can be launched from shore in any
weather and perform rescues
further distances out.
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Older lifeboats relied on sails and


oars, which are slower and
dependent on wind conditions or
manpower. Both types remain in
use. All lifeboats of this type
generally have modern electronic
devices such as radios and radar
to help locate the party in distress
and carry medical and food
supplies for the survivors.
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.Six easy steps to launch an


open life boat are given
below which are self
explanatory.

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Six easy steps to launch a


enclosed life boat are given
below which are self
explanatory.

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LIFERAFT

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A liferaft is your last means of defense to save crews


lives, make sure they get serviced annually
Never roll a liferaft, you could upset some of the liferaft's
workings such as the painter line, the liferaft has
breather holes at the bottom of the raft incase any water
enters the raft and also to stop the rubber eroding.
If a vessel sinks and you did not have time to launch the
liferaft manually, the hydrostatic release will operate
when it is submerged under the water between 1.5 - 4.0
metres
The pressure of the water pushes down on a vertical
spring releasing a second spring which is under a lot of
torque this pushes a very sharp blade out cutting the
attachment line releasing the SENHOUSE SLIP
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How To launch a liferaft


manually

This is important and could save your life and also


your crews lives
(1) Have two men undo the SENHOUSE Slip
(2) Lift the liferaft to the ships rail (Do not undo the
painter line from the hydrostatic release)
(3) Drop the liferaft into the water
(4) Pull the painter line till it can come no more and then
give it a sharp pull
(5) The liferaft should now inflate
(6) Pull the liferaft close to the pilot ladder
(7) Put the strongest man into the liferaft first
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How To launch a liferaft


manually

(8) Pass him the tail of the painter line leading back to
the hydrostatic release, he will be pulling the liferaft
closer too
(9) Every person that enters the liferaft helps him to keep
the liferaft close to the ship
(10) The second last person will get the safety knife
attached to the sponsons inside the liferaft
(11) Once the last person boards the liferaft, the painter
line gets cut at the hydrostatic release side
(12) It is important to try and not loose your liferaft's, this
has been done before, the reason for launching liferaft's
is there is no hope for the vessel, loose these liferaft's
and there is no hope for you, take care!
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Liferaft's, how they launch if the


vessel sinks
RFD Liferaft

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The liferaft now floats free to the surface pulling


the painter line out, once all the painter line is
pulled out it will pull a wire that is attached to a
THANNER OPERATING HEAD, this then
pierces the foil on the compressed Co2/nitrogen
filled canister.
The Canister is connected to 2 hoses which are
connected to the liferaft's sponsons
Once the liferaft is inflated the buoyancy of the
liferaft breaks the weak link on the hydrostatic
release
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Life Boats and Liferafts are provided in ships as a means of life


saving in case of emergency.
The number of lifeboats and liferafts provided is calculated on the
basis of carrying capacity of these life saving appliances and the
number of ships crew.
The life saving appliances are to be surveyed periodically as per the
regulations to ensure seaworthiness.
Safety awareness posters on procedures to launch life boats and
liferafts are prominently displayed in ships.
Easy access/approach to these appliances is necessary to use
these life saving appliances without any time delay.
Drills on using life saving appliances are to be conducted
periodically to ensure ships crew are confident to use these
appliances in case of emergency.

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Five easy steps to launch a


liferaft are given below
which are self explanatory.

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Distress radiobeacon
In the field of Search and Rescue
(SAR), distress radiobeacons, also
collectively known as distress
beacons, emergency beacons, or
simply, beacons, are tracking
transmitters which aid in the
detection and location of boats,
aircraft, and/or persons in
distress.
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Distress radiobeacon
In the proper sense, the term refers
specifically to the 3 types of
radiobeacons (listed below) that
interface with Cospas-Sarsat, the
international satellite system for
Search and Rescue. When activated,
such beacons send out a distress
signal that, when detected by
non-geostationary satellites, can be
located by triangulation.
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Distress radiobeacon
In the case of 406 MHz beacons
which transmit digital signals, the
beacons can be uniquely
identified almost instantly (via
GEOSAR), and furthermore, a GPS
position can be encoded into the
signal (thus providing both
instantaneous identification &
position.)
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Distress radiobeacon
Often using the initial position
provided via the satellite system,
the distress signals from the
beacons can be homed by SAR
aircraft and ground search parties
who can in turn come to the aid of
the concerned boat, aircraft,
and/or persons.
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The basic purpose of distress


radiobeacons is to get people
rescued within the so-called
"golden day"[2] (the first 24
hours following a traumatic
event) when the majority of
survivors can still be saved.
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Since the inception of Cospas-Sarsat in 1982,


distress radiobeacons have assisted in the
rescue of over 20,531 persons in 5,752 distress
situations. In 2005 distress radiobeacons aided
in the rescue of 1,666 persons in 435 distress
situations.[3] There are roughly 556000
121.5 MHz beacons and 429000 406 MHz
beacons.[4] As of 2002, there were roughly
82,000 registered (406 MHz) beacons, and over
500,000 of the older unregistered kind.[
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EPIRBS

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EPIRBS
EPIRB stands for Emergency Position
Indicating Radio Beacon. An EPIRB is
meant to help rescuers locate you in an
emergency situation, and these radios
have saved many lives since their
creation in the 1970s. Boaters are the
main users of EPIRBs.

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An Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon


(EPIRB) is a transmitter that will send a distress
signal up to a satellite system from anywhere in
the World or up to aircraft if they are in range.
With one, you can easily alert the emergency
services in situations where you would be out of
range of normal communications.
Whist useful for coastal sailors, EPIRBs could be
considered to be essential for anyone
contemplating an ocean crossing
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Register your EPIRB


They are registered to the specific boat, so if it is
triggered the rescue services know exactly what
they are looking for and to check that the boat is
at sea (Many alerts are accidental).
Because EPIRBs are registered to the boat they
must never be swapped from one vessel to
another without being re-registered.
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A modern EPIRB is a sophisticated


device that contains:
A 5-watt radio transmitter operating at
406 MHz (see How the Radio Spectrum
Works for details on frequencies)
A 0.25-watt radio transmitter operating
at 121.5 MHz
A GPS receiver
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GPS EPIRBS
The latest generation of EPIRBs have
GPS built in, this means that the position
of a vessel in distress can be known to
about 20m.
At present these EPIRBs are the most
expensive but they will become standard
in the future and the price will drop
considerably.
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Once activated, both of the radios start


transmitting. Approximately 24,000 miles
(39,000 km) up in space, a GOES
weather satellite in a geosynchronous
orbit can detect the 406-MHz signal.
Embedded in the signal is a unique serial
number, and, if the unit is equipped with a
GPS receiver, the exact location of the
radio is conveyed in the signal as well. If
the EPIRB is properly registered, the serial
number lets the Coast Guard know who
owns the EPIRB.
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Rescuers in planes or boats can home in


on the EPIRB using either the 406-MHz or
121.5-MHz signal. Older EPIRBs did not
contain the GPS receiver, so the GOES
satellite received only a serial number.
To locate the EPIRB, another set of
satellites (like the TIROS-N satellite)
orbiting the planet in a low polar orbit
could pick up the signal as it passed
overhead. This would give a rough fix
on the location, but it took several
hours for a satellite to come into range.
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SART
S.A.R.T. stands for Search And rescue
Transponder, when activated, and vessel
with a radar that is operating in the 9Ghz
bandwidth will be able to home on your
vessel (or liferaft).

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Search and Rescue


Transponder
Shipboard Global Maritime Distress
Safety System (GMDSS) installations
include one or more Search and
Rescue Transponder (SART) devices
which are used to locate a survival
craft or distressed vessel by creating a
series of dots on a rescuing ship's
radar display. A SART will only respond
to an X-band (3 cm wavelength) radar.
It will not be seen on S-band (10 cm) or
other radar.
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The SART may be triggered by any Xband radar within a range of


approximately 8 nautical miles (15
kilometers). Each radar pulse received
causes it to transmit a response which
is swept repetitively across the
complete radar frequency band. When
interrogated, it first sweeps rapidly
(0.4 microsecond) through the band
before beginning a relatively slow
sweep
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Over 5 miles will give the above effect on


radar once the SART has been activated
Between 1-5 miles will give the above
effect on radar once the SART has been
activated Under 1 mile will give the above
effect on radar once the SART has been
activated
To activate a S.A.R.T;

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(1) Remove the S.A.R.T. from it's
container
(2) Pull the safety pin from the S.A.R.T.
(3) Check the RED light is on
(4) In onboard the vessel, try and get it as
high as possible
(5) If in a Liferaft, mount it on top of the
liferaft

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Battery Renewal - 4 years
Type of battery - Lithium
Operating life span - 100 hours in stand-by
mode and 8 hours when continuously sending a
signal
Serviced every 2 years
Monthly tests - turn the switch on the S.A.R.T. to
test mode, hold for a few seconds, an audible
alarm will sound and the light will flash
(As soon as you see the light and hear the
sound you should switch it off, leaving it on will
activate the S.A.R.T.
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