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The Mole and

Stoichiometry
The Avagadro Mystery Revealed

Mole
One mole represents a certain number of something in
a chemical reaction
Similar counting words=
Dozen for 12 of something
Pair for 2 of something
Gross for 144 of something

A mole is equal to 6.02 X 1023 of something


602, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000

How Big is a Mole?

Avagadros Number
The number of atoms
or molecules in one
mole of a substance
Avagadros Number is
equal to 6.022*1023
atoms or molecules

Molecular Mass vs. Molar


Mass
Molecular Mass
Mass of one molecule of a substance in amu

Remember, we already talked about atomic


mass with the unit of amu
Example:
Molecular Mass
of H20 = 18 amu

1 hydrogen (H) = 1 amu x 2 = 2amu


1 oxygen (O) = 16 amu

Molar Mass
mass of one mole of a substance
1 molecular mass amu = 1 molar mass gram

Example:
if H20 has a molecular
mass of 18amu then
H2O has a molar mass of
18 g/1 mole

Numbers to know:
Irons atomic mass is 56 amu
Carbons mass is 12 amu
Oxygens mass is 16 amu

Calculate the MOLECULAR mass of:


1. Carbon monoxide (CO)
2. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
3. Iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3)

Molecular Mass
Calculations

Whole group

All of the numbers that we pull from the periodic table


have a unit of amu or grams/1 mole.

Calculate the MOLAR mass of:


1. Carbon monoxide (CO)
2. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
3. Iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3)

Molar Mass
Calculations

Calculate the molar mass of:


1. H2O
2. CH4
3. H2CO3
4. C6H12O6

Molar Mass
Partner Practice

Stoichiometry
Why do we need to balance
equations?
How does this connect to our
Chemical Bonding unit?

How can we solve problems using


stoichiometry?

The equation is now balanced

Example:
4__ Al
2

2 Al O
32 O __
+ __
2
2 3

Balancing Equations

Example:
1 C2H4O2 + 2 O2 --------> 2 CO2 + 2 H2O
a.
b.
c.
d.

Number of moles are bold and underlined.


Reactants on the left. Products on the right.
We can figure out the molar mass of each.
Think of it as an If/Then statement

What do balanced
equations tell us?

Example:
1 C2H4O2 + 2 O2 --------> 2 CO2 + 2 H2O

1. IF we have 1 mole of C2H4O2, THEN we will


make 2 moles of CO2
2. IF we end up with 2 moles of H2O, THEN we
started with 2 moles of O2
3. Try your own. Any combination is fine because
they are all related in these ratios.
4. And you can do the same in relating each molar
mass!

If/Then

Stoichiometry Activity
Remember converting units? Why was this
important?
5 poundsx

1 kilogram

2.27
2
= ____ kilograms

2.2 pounds
2.2 pounds

1 kilogram

1 kilogram

2.2 pounds

Stoichiometry Activity

Stoichiometry is important because


it allows us to relate products and
reactants mathematically (just like
our if/then statements)

Question: How many grams of CO there in 2.1


moles of CO?
1. What do we have and what do we want?
Have moles of CO
Want grams of CO
2.1 moles of CO

28 g CO

59

= ___

grams of CO
1 mole CO
2. We do this with our molar mass card
28 g CO

1 mole CO

56 g CO

1 mole CO

28 g CO

2 mole CO

Stoichiometry Moles to

Question: How many moles of carbon monoxide


(CO) are required to react completely with 1.75
moles of iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3)?

__ Fe2O3 + __ CO __ Fe + __ CO2
1. You MUST always do is check if the
equation is balanced and balance it if it is not!

Stoichiometry - Mole to Mole

Question: How many moles of carbon monoxide


(CO) are required to react completely with 1.75
moles of iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3)?

Fe2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2
2. Use the question to determine what you have
1.75 moles of Fe2O3

3. Use the question to determine what you want to know


Moles of carbon monoxide

Stoichiometry - Mole to Mole

Question: How many moles of carbon monoxide


(CO) are required to react completely with 1.75
moles of iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3)?
Fe2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2
4. Figure out the conversion factor (card) that gets
you from the units you have to the units you want
5.25
3
mole
CO
1.75 moles Fe O
= ___ moles
2

1 mole Fe2O3

of CO
1 2mole
2O3
moleFeFe

3 mole CO

3 moles CO

1 mole Fe2O3

1 mole Fe2O3

Stoichiometry - Mole to Mole

OUR ROAD MAP

2 A + B A2B
Grams A Moles A Moles B Grams B

Now, think of every arrow as a conversion ratio


Converting grams of A to moles of A requires one
ratio
Converting moles of A to moles of B requires one
ratio
Converting grams of A to moles of B requires two
ratios
Converting grams of A to grams of B requires three
ratios

What have we learned so far?

In this class, you will never need more than three ratios

Question: How many grams of CO2 will be


produced from 17 grams of Fe2O3?

Fe2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2
For this you will have three steps:
Ratios come from:
1. Grams of Fe2O3 to moles of Fe2O
Molar
Mass
3
2. Moles of Fe2O3 to moles of CO2Balanced Reaction
3. Moles of CO2 to grams of CO2 Molar Mass

Try it in your groups!

Stoichiometry

What are the


Questions?