Sunteți pe pagina 1din 35

A day in the life of an

Enterprise Architect
Adrian Campbell – Enterprise Architecture
Consultant

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


V2
Topics
 What is Enterprise Architecture (EA)
 Scope of the EA role
 Drivers for EA
 EA team
 EA Role activities
 Skills and experience needed
 Typical Challenges
 EA Process and its alignment to other
processes
 EA Pitfalls (by Gartner)

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


What is Enterprise Architecture?

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


What is Enterprise Architecture?
 A process
 For developing and using enterprise architecture
in an enterprise
 A product
 The complete and consistent set of methods, rules
and models, which will guide the (redesign,
migration and implementation of business
products and services, processes, organisational
structures, information, applications and the
technical infrastructure within an enterprise.

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Enterprise Architecture
A definition of Enterprise Architecture is addressed in 2
constituent parts – enterprise and architecture.
 The Open Group defines ‘enterprise’ as follows:
 An ‘enterprise’ is any collection of organisations that has a
common set of goals and/or a single bottom line. In that
sense, an enterprise can be a government agency, a whole
corporation, a division of a corporation, a single department,
or a chain of geographically distant organisations linked
together by common ownership.
 Gartner define ‘architecture’ as follows;
 1. The grand design or overall concept employed in creating
a system, as in the architecture of a city or a customer
information system; also "an abstraction or design of a
system, its structure, components and how they interrelate"
 2. A family of guidelines (concepts, policies, principles, rules,
patterns, interfaces and standards) to use when building a
new IT capability.

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Scope of EA
 Strategic / long term viewpoint (up to 3 to 5 years in the
future)
 Support the CIO/CTO and main board
 Supports the Business
 Aligning the IT Strategy with the Business Strategy and Business
Operating Model
 Architects the (extended) Enterprise and not just the organisation
 EA provides value by supporting:
 IT enabled policy changes
 Major initiatives
 Change programmes
 EA is mainly seen as an IT management leadership role
 Not as a Project/Solution/Technical Architect role
 But many organisations new to EA confuse these roles

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Drivers for EA
 Support major programmes for:
 Ecommerce
 Consolidation
 Cost reduction
 New organisation
 Mergers & Acquisitions
 Smarter solutions
 Reuse of shared services
 New technology
 Regulatory

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


The EA Team
 Chief Enterprise Architect
 Enterprise Architect
 Business Architect
 Information/Data Architect
 Application Architect
 Infrastructure Architect
 Security Architect
 Domain Architect
 Business Unit Architect (Focused on a Business Domain)
 Functional Domain Architect (focused on a Business
Function)
 Virtual Architecture Team
 Solution Architect
Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.
Example: Viewpoints of an EA team
Business
System
Thinker
Viewpoint
Business
Strategist Support

Facilitator
Visionary

Architecture Governance
Viewpoint Governance Viewpoint
Enterprise
Architecture Compliance

Architecture Quality
Development Assurance Design
Process Assurance

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Stakeholders

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Skills of an EA
 Motivation
 Evangelist
 Visionary about the future
 Leadership
 Negotiation
 Most EAs are contributors and do not have
organizational power
 System Thinking
 Problem Solving
 Business knowledge and credibility.
 Process knowledge
 Innovative
 Soft Skills
 Management
 Persuasion

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Stakeholder management
 Review Business Strategy
 Contribute to IT Strategy
 Modelling the enterprise architecture (current and
future states)
 Develop EA Roadmaps
 Develop EA reference architecture
 Evaluation of vendors
 Support the initiation of programmes and projects
 Decision making (Governance, Compliance and Design
Assurance)
 Communication

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Stakeholder management
 Engaging
 Planning
 Meetings
 Messages
 Requirements
 Workshops

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Review Business Strategy
 Goals
 Objectives
 Measures
 Business Operating model
 Business Policies
 Regulations

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Contribute to IT Strategy
 Patterns
 IT policies
 Guidelines
 Product specific roadmaps and blueprints
 Standards

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Modelling the enterprise architecture
 Develop future state enterprise architecture
models (interim and future states)
 High level design of architecture building blocks
 Develop current state enterprise architecture
model
 Contribute to Solution Architecture models

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Develop EA Roadmaps
 Sequence of initiatives and activities to achieve
the future state architecture
 Via interim states
 Provide timely value at all stages
 Align IT initiatives with Business Initiatives
 Initiatives feed into a ‘funnel’ of procurement,
funding and programme management processes

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Develop EA reference architecture
 Often as an EA web site and/or EA Handbook
 Standards
 Patterns
 Guidelines
 Standards
 Blueprints
 Aligned to industry specific reference models
 FEAF
 eTOM
 XGEA
 IFW
 IAA

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Evaluations of:
 Vendors or Suppliers
 Their product and service offerings

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Support the initiation of programmes and
projects
 EA initiatives help to scope and define
programmes and projects to be initiated
 Support the governance and compliance of
programmes from the enterprise perspective

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Decision making - Governance
 Architecture Review Board
 Strategic Architecture Forum
 IT Management meetings
 Operational status
 Costs
 Incidents
 Risks
 Portfolio of changes
 Regulatory
 Mandatory
 Business as usual

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Decision making - Compliance
 Ensure that Solution Architects have complied
with:
 Future state enterprise architecture
 EA reference architecture (patterns, IT policies,
guidelines, reference models etc.)
 Exemptions and waivers for non-compliance
 Solution Architecture / Project Steering Boards
 Quality Gates (i.e. OGC Gateways)

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Decision making – Assessment/Design Assurance
 Approval to continue/sign off during Quality
Gate/Steering group meetings
 Business Strategy Planning
 Idea/vision stage
 Feasibility study
 High level cost estimation
 Programme Management (i.e. MSP)
 Project Management (i.e.Prince2)
 Solution Development (i.e. RUP):
 Inception phase
 Elaboration phase
 Construction phase
 Transition phase
 Service Delivery (i.e. ITIL)
 Production Operation

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Activities of an EA
 Communication
 EA by walking around
 Communication can be up to 40% of the role
 Preparing messages, presentations, posters
 Develop and maintain an EA web site
 Publish a status Dashboard and MI reports
 Publish EA models and artefacts on the Intranet

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


The EA Process
 Based on TOGAF ADM or FSAM or Spewak
 Should be aligned with other standard
processes:
 COBIT
 MSP
 Prince 2
 RUP
 ITIL etc.
 And with non-standardised processes for:
 Strategic Planning
 Procurement
 Cost Estimation etc.
Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.
Example: IT management processes
around EA
IT Strategy & Vision Planning & Portfolio Management
Set Architecture Objectives Manage Application Portfolios, Programmes and
Develop Architecture Strategy Projects
Define Architecture Roadmap Perform Project Assessment
Make Architecture Decisions at Project Quality
Gates Solution Development
Define the IT organisation and relationships
Governance Manage the IT investment
Manage human resources
Gap Analysis (Gaps)
Identify Architecture Requirements (Topics)
Assess risks Reuse Existing Services
Provide Architecture Direction Manage priorities Develop New Services
Communicate Architecture Manage quality Decide on Integration Strategy
Define Architecture Blueprints Manage value Select, Acquire and maintain COTS Products
Define Principles, Standards and Best Develop and Maintain Services
Practice Develop Business Solution
Define Architecture Reference Models
Define Target Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture Manage application changes

(Current & Target)

Compliance Service Delivery


Perform Architecture Compliance Deploy and operate applications and business
Assessment solutions
Assess Architecture Compliance (for Acquire and maintain technology & infrastructure
Applications and Services) Define and manage service levels
Provide audit Manage third-party services
Monitor Applications and Services Manage performance and capacity
Monitor Quality Ensure continuous service
Monitor Security Ensure systems security
Identify and allocate service costs
Monitor the Enterprise Architecture
Update the Enterprise Architecture Performance Educate and train users
Assess the Architecture Maturity Level Assist and advise users
Collect Architecture Metrics Manage change
Measure total cost of ownership Manage the configuration
Measure performance Manage problems and incidents
Measure quality Manage data storage
Create Balanced Scorecard Manage physical facilities
Report management information

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Example: Aligned EA Processes

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Example: Services provided by EA

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Example: Change Portfolios

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Example: EA ‘Funnel’ of changes and
initiatives

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Example: EA Governance for Solution
Development
Enterprise Architecture Governance
Decide on Approve Architecture Ensure Architecture
Architecture Request Contract Compliance

Requests for Acknowledgement Architecture Architecture


Architecture Change, Contract Project Contract
Architecture Architecture
Request for Deviation [Approved] [Compliant]
Contract [Solution]
from Architecture
[Proposed]

Enterprise Architecture Development Architecture Solution increment Project


Feasible ? Defined ? Released ? Completed ?
Assess Assess Assess Review Update
Architecture Architecture Architecture Compliance Architecture

Impact Architecture Architecture Architecture Post


Analysis, Contract Contract [Solution] Implementation
Gap Analysis Authorised Approved Authorised Review

Statement of Architecture
Architecture Contract Architecture
Release
Defined Contract Iteration
Work Authorised
Refined Assessed

Software Development

Inception Elaboration Construction Transition


Project Project
Initiated Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved. Closed
EA Challenges
 Prove the ROI for EA
 EA seen as an Ivory Tower
 Need for a Business Sponsor
 Communication about EA
 Lack of maturity in the organisation
 Need for process improvement
 No centralised budget for EA sponsored initiatives
 EA often has no formal authority
 EA often needs to be aware of thousands of application
services/ applications etc.
 High expectations from stakeholders
 EA is often confused with IT Architecture
 Enterprise Architect is often expected to be a solution
architect as well

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Gartner identified 10 Enterprise Architecture pitfalls
http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1159617
 1. The Wrong Lead Architect: Gartner identified the single biggest EA problem as a chief architect who is an ineffective
leader. He or she may understand EA well but has ineffective leadership skills that even a good organisational structure and
staffing levels cannot overcome. Gartner recommends that such a lead architect be replaced by someone with strong ‘soft’
skills such as enthusiasm, communication and passion, as well as being well respected and strategically minded.
 2. Insufficient Stakeholder Understanding and Support: This happens when employees outside the EA team don’t
participate in the EA programme, EA content is not used in projects and management questions its value. Gartner’s solution
is to make EA education and communication a top priority to secure executive-team sponsorship. “The key is to ‘sell’ first
and architect later,” said Mr Bittler.
 3. Not Engaging the Business People: When IT and business goals are not aligned, resultant problems include non-
technical people trying to make technical decisions while enterprise architects become too reactionary and tactical in
response to projects. To overcome this, Gartner recommends that enterprise architects get involved in the development of
the business context and engage jointly with other employees in the business architecture.
 4. Doing Only Technical Domain-Level Architecture: This dated EA approach is still in use in some organisations and is
even narrower in scope than technical architecture. Holistic EA best-practice is much broader as it includes business,
information and solutions architecture.
 5. Doing Current-State EA First: Successful EA provides prescriptive guidance but current-state EA does not, so it delays
delivery of EA value and hinders the creation of good future-state EA. “The temptation is often to do the easy – current-state
– EA first,” said Mr Bittler. “Instead, establish the business context and then focus first on future-state EA.”
 6. The EA Group Does Most of the Architecting: This is a pitfall because the EA content is typically off the mark as it
was not informed by those on the business side. There is also consequently no buy-in for the EA. The primary job of
architects is to lead the EA process rather than impose EA content on the organisation. They should form virtual teams to
create content and seek consensus on the content.
 7. Not Measuring and Not Communicating the Impact: The value of EA is often indirect, so it may not be obvious to
everyone in the organisation. This then exposes the EA programme to risk of failure. Gartner recommends that enterprise
architects create a slide to demonstrate each success story of EA applied to a project. They should include measurement and
documentation of EA in the programme plan.
 8. Architecting the ‘Boxes’ Only: Enabling better business agility and integration is key but architecting standards for the
‘boxes’ (business units) in process, information, technical and solutions models doesn’t address this. Integration and
interoperability standards are high EA priorities and must account for more than just technical architecture. Architects should
focus more on the links between the boxes.
 9. Not Establishing Effective EA Governance Early: Enterprise architects must resist the temptation to wait for more
architecture content before setting governance processes and instead develop content and governance in parallel.
 10. Not Spending Enough Time on Communications: Key messages about EA are not intuitively obvious, so enterprise
architects must work to educate the business. It is critical that organisations develop and execute an EA communications
plan with messages tailored to each audience.

Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.


Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.
Contact
 Adrian Campbell
 Enterprise Architecture consultant

 blog: http://ingenia.wordpress.com/
 web: http://iea.wikidot.com/
 LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/adrianrgcampbell

 ArchiMate and TOGAF expert


 (TOGAF certified)

 Member: Center for the Advancement of the Enterprise


Architecture Profession, ArchiMate Forum
Copyright © Adrian Campbell. All rights reserved.