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Deformation

Saint-Venants Principle

## Localized deformation occurs at

each end, and the deformations
decrease as measurements are
taken further away from the ends
At section c-c, stress reaches
almost uniform value as compared
to a-a, b-b
c-c is sufficiently far enough
away from P so that localized
deformation vanishes, i.e.,
minimum distance
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Saint-Venants Principle

## General rule: min. distance is at least

equal to largest dimension of loaded xsection. For the bar, the min. distance is
equal to width of bar
This behavior discovered by Barr de
Saint-Venant in 1855, this the name of the
principle
Saint-Venant Principle states that
localized effects caused by any load
acting on the body, will dissipate/smooth
out within regions that are sufficiently
Thus, no need to study stress distributions
at that points near application loads or
support reactions
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PL

AE

SIGN CONVENTION

ve

ve

compression
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## Elastic Deformation of an Axially

Total deformation:

tot

PL
AE

tot AB BC CD
tot

P L
P L
PAB L AB
BC BC CD CD
AE
AE
AE

## Elastic Deformation of an Axially

1) Internal Forces

2) Displacement calculation

tot

(3kN) LBC
(7kN) LCD
(5kN) LAB

AE
AE
AE

Example 1
Composite A-36 steel bar shown made
from two segments AB and BD. Area AAB
= 600 mm2 and ABD = 1200 mm2.
Determine the vertical displacement
of end A and displacement of B
relative to C.
A-36 Steel: E = 210 GPa

Displacement of point A

A DC CB BA
Displacement of point B
relative to C

B / C CB

Displacement of point A

A DC CB BA
A
A
A

PDC LDC
P L
P L
CB CB BA BA
ACB E
ABA E

45(10) 3 (500)
35(10) 3 (750)
75(10) 3 (1000)

3
3
1200( 210)(10)
1200( 210)(10)
600( 210)(10) 3
0.61mm

## Displacement of point B relative to C

B / C CB
B/C

35(10) 3 (750)

1200(210)(10) 3

Solve it!

The copper shaft is subjected to the axial loads shown. Determine the
displacement of end A with respect to end D. The diameter of each
segment are dAB = 75 mm, dBC= 50 mm and dCD = 25 mm. Take Ecu =
126 GPa.

1) Internal Forces
PAB=30 kN

2) Displacement calculation

Tension
(30(10) 3 )(1250)
AB
( (75) 2 / 4)(126(10) 3 )
0.06737mm

PAB=30 kN

Tension

P=20 kN

PAB=30 kN

PBC=10 kN

PCD=-5 kN

P=5 kN

(10(10) 3 )(1875)
BC
( (50) 2 / 4)(126(10) 3 )
0.07578mm
Compression

(5(10) 3 )(1500)
CD
( (25) 2 / 4)(126(10) 3 )
0.12126mm
Total deformation

Solve it!

## The assembly consist of three titanium (Ti-6A1-4V) rods and a rigid

bar AC. The cross sectional area for each rod is given in the figure. If
a force 30kN is applied to the ring F, determine the angle of tilt of bar
AC.

FDC

1) Equilibrium Equation

M
FDC
FAB

30(10) 3 (300)

10(10) 3 N
900
20(10) 3 N

FAB

F= 30kN

## 2) Based on FAB and FDC, FDC is predicted to deform more.

DC

(10(10) 3 )(1200)
DC
(600)(120(10) 3 )
0.16667mm
( 20(10) 3 )(1800)
AB
(900)(120(10) 3 )
0.33333mm

3) Angle of tilt

tan 1 (

AB DC
900

o
0.01061
Lecture 1

AB
)
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Example 2
The assembly shown in the figure consists of an aluminum tube
AB having a cross-sectional area of 400 mm2. A steel rod
having a diameter of 10 mm is attached to a rigid collar and
passes through the tube. If a tensile load of 80 kN is applied to
the rod, determine the displacement of the end C of the rod.
Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 70 GPa.

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C / B

PL
80 10 3 0.6

0.003056 m
9
AE 0.005 200 10

## Displacement of end B with respect to the fixed end A,

PL
80 10 3 0.4
B

0.001143 0.001143 m
6
9
AE 400 10
70 10
Since both displacements are to the right,

C B C / B 0.0042 m 4.20 mm
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