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Fundamentals of Distance

Protection
GE Multilin

Outline

Transmission line introduction


What is distance protection?
Non-pilot and pilot schemes
Redundancy considerations
Security for dual-breaker terminals
Out-of-step relaying
Single-pole tripping
Series-compensated lines
2/
GE /
November-26-14

Transmission Lines
A Vital Part of the Power System:
Provide path to transfer power between generation and load
Operate at voltage levels from 69kV to 765kV
Deregulated markets, economic, environmental requirements
have pushed utilities to operate transmission lines close to their
limits.

3/
GE /
November-26-14

Transmission Lines
Classification of line length depends on:
Source-to-line Impedance Ratio (SIR),
and
Nominal voltage
Length considerations:
Short Lines: SIR > 4
Medium Lines: 0.5 < SIR < 4
Long Lines: SIR < 0.5
4/
GE /
November-26-14

Typical Protection Schemes


Short Lines

Current differential
Phase comparison
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)

5/
GE /
November-26-14

Typical Protection Schemes


Medium Lines

Phase comparison
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Unblocking
Step Distance
Step or coordinated overcurrent
Inverse time overcurrent
Current Differential
6/
GE /
November-26-14

Typical Protection Schemes


Long Lines

Phase comparison
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Unblocking
Step Distance
Step or coordinated overcurrent
Current Differential
7/
GE /
November-26-14

What is distance protection?


Intended
REACH point
F1
Z

I*Z
V=I*ZF
I*Z - V

RELAY (V,I)

For internal faults:


> IZ V and V approximately
in phase (mho)
> IZ V and IZ
approximately in phase
(reactance)

8/
GE /
November-26-14

What is distance protection?


F2
Intended
REACH point

I*Z
V=I*ZF
I*Z - V

RELAY (V,I)

For external faults:


> IZ V and V approximately
out of phase (mho)
> IZ V and IZ
approximately out of phase
(reactance)

9/
GE /
November-26-14

What is distance protection?


Intended
REACH point

RELAY

10 /
GE /
November-26-14

Source Impedance Ratio,


Accuracy & Speed
Relay

Lin
e

System
Voltage at the relay:

VR VN

f LOC [ PU ]
f LOC [ PU ] SIR

Consider SIR = 0.1


Fault location

Voltage
(%)

Voltage change
(%)

75%

88.24

2.76

90%

90.00

0.91

100%

90.91

N/A

110%

91.67

0.76
11 /
GE /
November-26-14

Source Impedance Ratio,


Accuracy & Speed
Relay
System
Lin
e

Voltage at the relay:

VR VN

f LOC [ PU ]
f LOC [ PU ] SIR

Consider SIR = 30
Fault location

Voltage
(%)

Voltage change
(%)

75%

2.4390

0.7868

90%

2.9126

0.3132

100%

3.2258

N/A

110%

3.5370

0.3112
12 /
GE /
November-26-14

Challenges in relay design


> Transients:
High frequency
DC offset in currents
CVT transients in
voltages

30

voltage, V

20

High Voltage Line

C1

steady-state
output

10
0

-10
3

CVT output

C2

Secondary Voltage
Output

-20
2

-30
0

2
power cycles

4
8
13 /
GE /
November-26-14

Challenges in relay design


> Transients:
High frequency
DC offset in currents
CVT transients in
voltages

60

voltage, V

40

High Voltage Line

C1

steady-state
output

20
0

-20
3

CVT
output

C2

Secondary Voltage
Output

-40
2

-60

2
power cycles

4
8
14 /
GE /
November-26-14

Challenges in relay design


100

vA

vB

100

vC

80

20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100

-0.5

0.5

1.5

50

SPOL
Sorry Future (unknown)

-50

iA
4

SOP

3
Current [A]

Voltage [V]

40

Reactance comparator [V]

60

-100

0.5

1.5

power cycles

1
0

iB, iC

-1
-2
-3

-0.5

-0.5

0.5

1.5

> In-phase = internal


fault
> Out-of-phase =
external fault

15 /
GE /
November-26-14

Transient Overreach
Fault current generally contains dc offset in
addition to ac power frequency component
Ratio of dc to ac component of current
depends on instant in the cycle at which fault
occurred
Rate of decay of dc offset depends on
system X/R
16 /
GE /
November-26-14

Zone 1 and CVT Transients


Capacitive Voltage Transformers (CVTs) create certain
problems for fast distance relays applied to systems with
high Source Impedance Ratios (SIRs):
> CVT-induced transient voltage components may
assume large magnitudes (up to 30-40%) and last for
a comparatively long time (up to about 2 cycles)
> 60Hz voltage for faults at the relay reach point may be
as low as 3% for a SIR of 30
> the signal may be buried under noise

17 /
GE /
November-26-14

Zone 1 and CVT Transients


CVT transients can cause distance relays to overreach.
Generally, transient overreach may be caused by:
> overestimation of the current (the magnitude of the
current as measured is larger than its actual value,
and consequently, the fault appears closer than it is
actually located),
> underestimation of the voltage (the magnitude of the
voltage as measured is lower than its actual value)
> combination of the above

18 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Element Fundamentals

Z1

End Zone

XL

R
XC

15
34

42

Actual Fault
Location

44

Reactance [ohm]

10

30

dynamic mho
zone extended
for high SIRs

Line
Impedance

5
18

22

Trajectory
(msec)

0
26

-5

-10

-5

0
Resistance [ohm]

5
10
Impedance
locus
may pass
below the origin of the Z-plane this would call for a time delay
to obtain stability
20 /
GE /
November-26-14

CVT Transient Overreach


Solutions
> apply delay (fixed or adaptable)
> reduce the reach
> adaptive techniques and better filtering
algorithms

21 /
GE /
November-26-14

CVT Transients Adaptive


Solution
> Optimize signal filtering:
currents - max 3% error due to the dc component
voltages - max 0.6% error due to CVT transients
> Adaptive double-reach approach
filtering alone ensures maximum transient
overreach at the level of 1% (for SIRs up to 5) and
20% (for SIRs up to 30)
to reduce the transient overreach even further an
adaptive double-reach zone 1 has been
implemented

22 /
GE /
November-26-14

CVT Transients Adaptive


Solution
The outer zone 1:
> is fixed at the actual reach
> applies certain security delay to cope with CVT transients

The inner zone 1:

> has its reach dynamically


controlled by the voltage
magnitude
> is instantaneous

X
Delayed
Trip

Instantaneous
Trip

R
23 /
GE /
November-26-14

Desirable Distance Relay


Attributes
Filters:
> Prefiltering of currents to remove dc decaying transients
Limit maximum transient overshoot (below 2%)
> Prefiltering of voltages to remove low frequency transients
caused by CVTs
Limit transient overreach to less than 5% for an SIR of
30
> Accurate and fast frequency tracking algorithm
> Adaptive reach control for faults at reach points

24 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Relay Operating Times

25 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Relay Operating Times


35ms
25ms

30ms

20ms

15ms

26 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Relay Operating Times


SLG faults

LL faults

3P faults

27 /
GE /
November-26-14

Actual maximum reach curves


Relay 4

100
90

Relay 3

80

Maximum Rach [%]

70
60
50
40

Relay 2

30
20

Relay 1

10
0

10

15
SIR

20

25

30

28 /
GE /
November-26-14

Maximum Torque Angle


Angle at which mho element has maximum
reach
Characteristics with smaller MTA will
accommodate larger amount of arc resistance

29 /
GE /
November-26-14

Mho Characteristics
Traditional

Directional angle
slammed

Directional
angle lowered
and slammed
Both MHO and
directional angles
slammed (lens)

30 /
GE /
November-26-14

Load Swings
+XL
+ = LOOKING INTO LINE
normally considered
forward

Load
Trajectory
Operate

No Operate area

area

Typical load characteristic


impedance

+R
31 /
GE /
November-26-14

Load Swings

Lenticular
Characteristic

Load swing

32 /
GE /
November-26-14

Load Encroachment Characteristic

The load encroachment element responds to positive


sequence voltage and current and can be used to
block phase distance and phase overcurrent
elements.

33 /
GE /
November-26-14

Blinders
Blinders limit the operation of distance relays
(quad or mho) to a narrow region that parallels
and encompasses the protected line
Applied to long transmission lines, where
mho settings are large enough to pick up on
maximum load or minor system swings

34 /
GE /
November-26-14

Quadrilateral Characteristics

35 /
GE /
November-26-14

Quadrilateral Characteristics

Ground Resistance
(Conductor falls on ground)
R

Resultant impedance outside of


the mho operating region

36 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Characteristics Summary


Mho
Lenticular
JX

Quadrilatera
l

R
Standard for phase
elements

Used for phase elements


with long heavily loaded
lines heavily loaded

Better coverage for


ground faults due
to resistance added
to return path

37 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Element Polarization


The following polarization quantities are commonly
used in distance relays for determining directionality:
Self-polarized
Memory voltage
Positive sequence voltage
Quadrature voltage
Leading phase voltage

38 /
GE /
November-26-14

Memory Polarization
> Positive-sequence memorized voltage is used for
polarizing:
Mho comparator (dynamic, expanding Mho)
Negative-sequence directional comparator (Ground
Distance Mho and Quad)
Zero-sequence directional comparator (Ground
Distance MHO and QUAD)
Directional comparator (Phase Distance MHO and
QUAD)
> Memory duration is a common distance settings (all zones,
phase and ground, MHO and QUAD)
39 /
GE /
November-26-14

Memory Polarization
Static MHO characteristic (memory not established or
expired)

jX
ZL

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a reverse fault

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a forward fau

Impedance During Close-up Faults

R
ZS
40 /
GE /
November-26-14

Memory Polarization
jX
ZL

Static MHO characteristic (memory not established or


expired)

Dynamic MHO characteristic for a forward fault

RL
R
ZS

Memory PolarizationImproved Resistive


Coverage

41 /
GE /
November-26-14

Choice of Polarization
In order to provide flexibility modern distance
relays offer a choice with respect to
polarization of ground overcurrent direction
functions:
Voltage polarization
Current polarization
Dual polarization
42 /
GE /
November-26-14

Ground Directional Elements


> Pilot-aided schemes using ground mho distance relays
have inherently limited fault resistance coverage
> Ground directional over current protection using either
negative or zero sequence can be a useful supplement to
give more coverage for high resistance faults
> Directional discrimination based on the ground quantities is
fast:

Accurate angular relations between the zero and


negative sequence quantities establish very quickly
because:
During faults zero and negative-sequence
currents and voltages build up from very low
values (practically from zero)
The pre-fault values do not bias the developing
fault components in any direction

43 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Schemes
Pilot Aided
Schemes

Non-Pilot Aided
Schemes
(Step Distance)

Communication
between Distance
relays

No Communication
between Distance
Relays
44 /
GE /
November-26-14

Step Distance Schemes


Zone 1:
Trips with no intentional time delay
Underreaches to avoid unnecessary operation for faults
beyond remote terminal
Typical reach setting range 80-90% of ZL
Zone 2:
Set to protect remainder of line
Overreaches into adjacent line/equipment
Minimum reach setting 120% of ZL
Typically time delayed by 15-30 cycles
Zone 3:
Remote backup for relay/station failures at remote
terminal
Reaches beyond Z2, load encroachment a consideration
45 /
GE /
November-26-14

Step Distance Schemes


Local
Z1

Z1
Remote
46 /
GE /
November-26-14

Step Distance Schemes


Local
End
Zone

Z1

End
Zone

Z1
Remote
47 /
GE /
November-26-14

Step Distance Schemes


Local
Z1

Breaker
Tripped

Breaker
Closed

Z1
Remote
48 /
GE /
November-26-14

Step Distance Schemes


Local
Z2 (time delayed)
Z1

Z1
Z2 (time delayed)

Remote

49 /
GE /
November-26-14

Step Distance Schemes

Z3 (remote backup)
Z2 (time delayed)
Z1

50 /
GE /
November-26-14

Step Distance Protection

51 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Relay Coordination


Over Lap
Local Relay Z2

Remote Relay Z4

Local Relay

Remote Relay

Zone 2 PKP

Zone 4 PKP

52 /
GE /
November-26-14

Need For Pilot Aided Schemes

Local
Relay

Remote Relay

Communication
Channel
53 /
GE /
November-26-14

Pilot Communications Channels


Distance-based pilot schemes traditionally utilize
simple on/off communications between relays, but
can also utilize peer-to-peer communications and
GOOSE messaging over digital channels
Typical communications media include:
Pilot-wire (50Hz, 60Hz, AT)
Power line carrier
Microwave
Radio
Optic fiber (directly connected or multiplexed
channels)
54 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance-based Pilot Protection

55 /
GE /
November-26-14

Pilot-Aided Distance-Based Schemes


DUTT Direct Under-reaching Transfer Trip
PUTT Permissive Under-reaching Transfer
Trip
POTT Permissive Over-reaching Transfer Trip
Hybrid POTT Hybrid Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip
DCB Directional Comparison Blocking
Scheme
DCUB Directional Comparison Unblocking
Scheme
56 /
GE /
November-26-14

Direct Underreaching Transfer Trip


(DUTT)
Requires only underreaching (RU) functions which
overlap in reach (Zone 1).
Applied with FSK channel
GUARD frequency transmitted during normal
conditions
TRIP frequency when one RU function operates
Scheme does not provide tripping for faults beyond
RU reach if remote breaker is open or channel is
inoperative.
Dual pilot channels improve security
57 /
GE /
November-26-14

DUTT Scheme

Zone 1

Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

58 /
GE /
November-26-14

Permissive Underreaching
Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Requires both under (RU) and overreaching
(RO) functions
Identical to DUTT, with pilot tripping signal
supervised by RO (Zone 2)

59 /
GE /
November-26-14

PUTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1

To protect end of
line
Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

Rx PKP
Zone 2

Local Trip

&
OR

Zone 1
60 /
GE /
November-26-14

Permissive Overreaching Transfer


Trip (POTT)
Requires overreaching (RO) functions (Zone
2).
Applied with FSK channel:
GUARD frequency sent in stand-by
TRIP frequency when one RO function
operates
No trip for external faults if pilot channel is
inoperative
Time-delayed tripping can be provided
61 /
GE /
November-26-14

POTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1

Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

(Z1)

Tx

Zone 1

(Z1)

OR

Rx
AND

Zone 2

Trip
Line
Breakers

t
o

62 /
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November-26-14

POTT Scheme
POTT Permissive Over-reaching Transfer
Trip
End
Zone

Communication
Channel

63 /
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November-26-14

POTT Scheme

Local Relay
FWD IGND
Local Relay Z2

Remote
Relay FWD
IGND

Remote Relay Z2

TRIP

Communicatio
n Channel
POTT RX

Local Relay
ZONE 2 PKP
OR
Ground Dir OC Fwd

POTT TX

ZONE 2 PKP

Remote Relay

OR
Ground Dir OC Fwd

64 /
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November-26-14

POTT Scheme

POTT RX 2
POTT RX 3
POTT RX 4

Local Relay

Communications
Channel(s)

POTT RX 1

POTT TX 1 A to G
POTT TX 2 B to G
POTT TX 3 C to G
POTT TX 4 Multi Phase

Remote Relay

65 /
GE /
November-26-14

POTT Scheme
Current reversal example
TRIP

Local Relay

Remote Relay
Timer
Start Communication
Timer
Expire
Channel

GND
GNDDIR
DIROC
OCFWD
REV

POTT RX

POTT TX

ZONE
2 OC
ORREV
GND
DIR
GND DIR OC FWD

66 /
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November-26-14

POTT Scheme
Echo example
Remote FWD
IGND

Open

Remote Z2

OPEN

Communication
Channel

POTT RX

Local Relay

POTT TX

TRIP

POTT TX

POTT RX

Communication
Channel

Remote Relay

67 /
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November-26-14

Hybrid POTT
Intended for three-terminal lines and weak
infeed conditions
Echo feature adds security during weak
infeed conditions
Reverse-looking distance and oc elements
used to identify external faults

68 /
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November-26-14

Hybrid POTT
Zone 2

Zone 1
Remote

Local
Weak
system

Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 4

Zone 2

69 /
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November-26-14

Directional Comparison Blocking


(DCB)
Requires overreaching (RO) tripping and blocking
(B) functions
ON/OFF pilot channel typically used (i.e., PLC)
Transmitter is keyed to ON state when blocking
function(s) operate
Receipt of signal from remote end blocks
tripping relays
Tripping function set with Zone 2 reach or greater
Blocking functions include Zone 3 reverse and lowset ground overcurrent elements
70 /
GE /
November-26-14

DCB Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1
Remote

Local
Bus

Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

71 /
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November-26-14

Directional Comparison Blocking


(DCB)
End Zone

Communication Channel

72 /
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November-26-14

Directional Comparison Blocking


(DCB)
Internal Faults

Local Relay Z2

FWD IGND

TRIP Timer
Start
Expired

TRIP

Zone 2 PKP
OR

NO

Local Relay GND DIR OC Fwd

Dir Block RX

Remote Relay
73 /
GE /
November-26-14

Directional Comparison Blocking


(DCB)
External Faults

Local Relay Z2

FWD IGND

Remote Relay Z4

TRIP Timer
Start
No TRIP

REV IGND

Dir Block RX

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP

OR

DIR BLOCK TX

Communication
Channel

GND DIR OC Fwd

Zone 4 PKP

Remote Relay

OR

GND DIR OC Rev

74 /
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November-26-14

Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Applied to Permissive Overreaching (POR)
schemes to overcome the possibility of carrier signal
attenuation or loss as a result of the fault
Unblocking provided in the receiver when signal is
lost:
If signal is lost due to fault, at least one
permissive RO functions will be picked up
Unblocking logic produces short-duration TRIP
signal (150-300 ms). If RO function not picked
up, channel lockout occurs until GUARD signal
returns
75 /
GE /
November-26-14

DCUB Scheme
Forward

Bus

Bus
Line

Forward

(Un-Block)

Tx1

(Block)

Tx2

Trip
Line
Breakers

Forward

(Block)

Rx2

AND
AND

(Un-Block)

AND
o

AND

Rx1

Lockout

76 /
GE /
November-26-14

Directional Comparison Unblocking


(DCUB)
End Zone

Communication Channel

77 /
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November-26-14

Directional Comparison Unblocking


(DCUB)
Normal conditions

Load Current

FSK Carrier

GUARD1 RX

FSK Carrier

GUARD1 TX

Local Relay
NO Loss of Guard
NO Permission

Remote Relay
GUARD2 TX

Communication
Channel

GUARD2 RX

NO Loss of Guard
NO Permission
78 /
GE /
November-26-14

Directional Comparison Unblocking


(DCUB)
Normal conditions, channel failure

Load Current

Loss of Channel
FSK Carrier

GUARD1
NO
RX RX

FSK Carrier

GUARD1 TX

Local Relay
Loss of Guard
Block Timer Started
Expired

Block DCUB
until Guard OK

Remote Relay
GUARD2 TX

Communication
Channel

GUARD2
NO
RX RX

Loss of Guard
Block Timer Expired
Started

Block DCUB 79 /
until Guard
OKGE /
November-26-14

Directional Comparison Unblocking


(DCUB)
Internal fault, healthy
channel
Local Relay
Z2

Remote Relay Z2

TRIP

TRIP Z1

FSK Carrier

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP

FSK Carrier

GUARD1
TRIP1
RXRX

GUARD1
TRIP1 TX
TX

GUARD2
TRIP2
TX TX

GUARD2
TRIP2
RXRX

Remote Relay
ZONE 2 PKP

Loss of Guard
Permission

Communication
Channel

80 /
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November-26-14

Directional Comparison Unblocking


(DCUB)
Internal fault, channel
failure
Local Relay
Z2

Remote Relay Z2

Loss of Channel

TRIP

TRIP Z1

FSK Carrier

Local Relay
Zone 2 PKP

FSK Carrier

GUARD1
NO
RX RX

GUARD1
TRIP1 TX
TX

GUARD2
TRIP2
TX TX

GUARD2
NO
RX RX

Loss of Guard
Block Timer Started
Duration Timer Started
Expired

Remote Relay
ZONE 2 PKP
Loss of Guard

Communication
Channel

81 /
GE /
November-26-14

Redundancy Considerations
Redundant protection systems increase dependability of the
system:
Multiple sets of protection using same protection principle
and multiple pilot channels overcome individual element
failure, or
Multiple sets of protection using different protection
principles and multiple channels protects against failure of
one of the protection methods.
Security can be improved using voting schemes (i.e., 2-outof-3), potentially at expense of dependability.
Redundancy of instrument transformers, battery systems, trip
coil circuits, etc. also need to be considered.
82 /
GE /
November-26-14

Redundant Communications
End Zone

AND Channels:
POTT Less Reliable
DCB Less Secure

OR Channels:
Communication Channel 1
Communication Channel 2

More Channel Security

POTT More Reliable


DCB More Secure
More Channel Dependability

Loss of Channel 2

83 /
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November-26-14

Redundant Pilot Schemes

84 /
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November-26-14

Pilot Relay Desirable Attributes


Integrated functions:
weak infeed
echo
line pick-up (SOTF)
Basic protection elements used to key the
communication:
distance elements
fast and sensitive ground (zero and negative
sequence) directional IOCs with current,
voltage, and/or dual polarization
85 /
GE /
November-26-14

Pilot Relay Desirable Attributes


Pre-programmed distance-based pilot schemes:
Direct Under-reaching Transfer Trip (DUTT)
Permissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (POTT)
Hybrid Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (HYB
POTT)
Blocking scheme (DCB)
Unblocking scheme (DCUB)

86 /
GE /
November-26-14

Security for dual-breaker terminals


Breaker-and-a-half and ring bus terminals are
common designs for transmission lines.
Standard practice has been to:
sum currents from each circuit breaker
externally by paralleling the CTs
use external sum as the line current for
protective relays
For some close-in external fault events, poor CT
performance may lead to improper operation of line
relays.
87 /
GE /
November-26-14

Security for dual-breaker terminals

Accurate CTs preserve the


reverse current direction
under weak remote infeed

88 /
GE /
November-26-14

Security for dual-breaker terminals

Saturation of CT1 may


invert the line current as
measured from externally
summated CTs

89 /
GE /
November-26-14

Security for dual-breaker terminals


Direct measurement of currents
from both circuit breakers allows
the use of supervisory logic to
prevent distance and directional
overcurrent elements from
operating incorrectly due to CT
errors during reverse faults.
Additional benefits of direct
measurement of currents:
independent BF protection
for each circuit breaker
independent autoreclosing
for each breaker
90 /
GE /
November-26-14

Security for dual-breaker terminals


Supervisory logic should:
not affect speed or sensitivity of protection elements
correctly allow tripping during evolving external-tointernal fault conditions
determine direction of current flow through each
breaker independently:
Both currents in FWD direction internal fault
One current FWD, one current REV external fault
allow tripping during all forward/internal faults
block tripping during all reverse/external faults
initially block tripping during evolving external-tointernal faults until second fault appears in forward
direction. Block is then lifted to permit tripping.
91 /
GE /
November-26-14

Single-pole Tripping
Distance relay must correctly identify a SLG
fault and trip only the circuit breaker pole for
the faulted phase.
Autoreclosing and breaker failure functions
must be initiated correctly on the fault event
Security must be maintained on the healthy
phases during the open pole condition and any
reclosing attempt.
92 /
GE /
November-26-14

Out-of-Step Condition
For certain operating conditions, a severe
system disturbance can cause system
instability and result in loss of synchronism
between different generating units on an
interconnected system.

93 /
GE /
November-26-14

Out-of-Step Relaying
Out-of-step blocking relays
Operate in conjunction with mho tripping relays
to prevent a terminal from tripping during severe
system swings & out-of-step conditions.
Prevent system from separating in an
indiscriminate manner.
Out-of-step tripping relays
Operate independently of other devices to
detect out-of-step condition during the first pole
slip.
Initiate tripping of breakers that separate system
in order to balance load with available
generation on any isolated part of the system.
94 /
GE /
November-26-14

Out-of-Step Tripping
When the inner
characteristic is
entered the element
is ready to trip

The locus must stay


for some time
between the outer
and middle
characteristics

Must move and stay


between the middle
and inner
characteristics

95 /
GE /
November-26-14

Power Swing Blocking


Applications:
> Establish a blocking signal for stable power swings (Power
Swing Blocking)
> Establish a tripping signal for unstable power swings (Outof-Step Tripping)
Responds to:
> Positive-sequence voltage and current

96 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines
Benefits of series capacitors:
Reduction of overall XL of long lines
Improvement of stability margins
Ability to adjust line load levels
Loss reduction
Reduction of voltage drop during severe disturbances
Normally economical for line lengths > 200 miles

Xs

SC

XL

Infinte
Bus

97 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines
SCs create unfavorable conditions for protective relays and
fault locators:
Overreaching of distance elements
Failure of distance element to pick up on low-current faults
Phase selection problems in single-pole tripping
applications
Large fault location errors

Xs

SC

XL

Infinte
Bus

98 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines
Series Capacitor with MOV

99 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines

100 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control

101 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for External Faults

102 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for External Faults

103 /
GE /
November-26-14

Series-compensated lines
Dynamic Reach Control for Internal Faults

104 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Protection Looking


Through a Transformer
Phase distance elements can be set to see beyond
any 3-phase power transformer
CTs & VTs may be located independently on
different sides of the transformer
Given distance zone is defined by VT location (not
CTs)
Reach setting is in sec, and must take into
account location & ratios of VTs, CTs and voltage
ratio of the involved power transformer
105 /
GE /
November-26-14

Transformer Group Compensation

Depending on location of VTs and CTs, distance relays need to


compensate for the phase shift and magnitude change caused by the
106 /
power transformer
GE /
November-26-14

Setting Rules
Transformer positive sequence impedance must be
included in reach setting only if transformer lies
between VTs and intended reach point
Currents require compensation only if transformer
located between CTs and intended reach point
Voltages require compensation only if transformer
located between VTs and intended reach point
Compensation set based on transformer connection
& vector group as seen from CTs/VTs toward reach
point
107 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Relay Desirable


Attributes
> Multiple reversible distance zones
> Individual per-zone, per-element characteristic:
Dynamic voltage memory polarization
Various characteristics, including mho, quad,
lenticular
> Individual per-zone, per-element current supervision
(FD)
> Multi-input phase comparator:
additional ground directional supervision
dynamic reactance supervision
> Transient overreach filtering/control
> Phase shift & magnitude compensation for distance
applications with power transformers
108 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Relay Desirable


Attributes
> For improved flexibility, it is desirable to have the following
parameters settable on a per zone basis:
Zero-sequence compensation
Mutual zero-sequence compensation
Maximum torque angle
Blinders
Directional angle
Comparator limit angles (for lenticular characteristic)
Overcurrent supervision

109 /
GE /
November-26-14

Distance Relay Desirable


Attributes
> Additional functions
Overcurrent elements (phase, neutral, ground,
directional, negative sequence, etc.)
Breaker failure
Automatic reclosing (single & three-pole)
Sync check
Under/over voltage elements
> Special functions
Power swing detection
Load encroachment
Pilot schemes
110 /
GE /
November-26-14

111 /
GE /
November-26-14