Amdahls Law

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Amdahls Law

© All Rights Reserved

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performance improvement is limited by

the range of impact when an

optimization is applied. Consider the

following equations:

Improvement rate N = (original

execution time) / (new execution time)

New execution time = timeunaffected +

timeaffected / (Improvement Factor)

Time = (instruction count) CPI CCT

CPI = (execution_time x

clock_rate)/instructions

(cpu_ex_time_B/cpu_ex_time_A)

formula to know which is faster

Amdahls law

execute and loads and stores account for 20%

of the execution times, how long will the

program take if loads and stores are made

30% faster? For this, you can use Amdahl's

law or you can reason it out step by step.

Doing it step by step gives (1) Before the

improvement loads take 20 seconds (2) If

loads and stores are made 30 percent faster

they will take 20/1.3 = 15.385 seconds, which

corresponds to 4.615 seconds less. (3) Thus,

the final program will take 100 - 4.615 = 95.38

Amdahls law

Gene Amdahl, is used to find the maximum

expected improvement to an overall system

when only part of the system is improved.

Amdhal's law can be interpreted more

technically, but in simplest terms it means that

it is the algorithm that decides the speedup not

the number of processors.

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

law of diminishing returns: while one

could speed up part of a computer a

hundred-fold or more, if the improvement

only affects 12% of the overall task, the

best the speedup could possibly be is

1

= 1.136 times faster.

1 0.12

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

with the speedup achievable from an

improvement to a computation that

affects a proportion P of that

computation where the improvement has

a speedup of S.

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

For example, if an improvement can

speedup 30% of the computation, P will

be 0.3; if the improvement makes the

portion affected twice as fast, S will be 2.

Amdahl's law states that the overall

speedup of applying the improvement

will be

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

that the running time of the old computation

was 1, for some unit of time. The running time

of the new computation will be the length of

time the unimproved fraction takes (which is

1 P) plus the length of time the improved

fraction takes. The length of time for the

improved part of the computation is the length

of the improved part's former running time

divided by the speedup, making the length of

time of the improved part P/S.

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

the old running time by the new running

time, which is what the above formula

does.

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

Here's another example. We are given a

task which is split up into four parts: P1 =

.11 or 11%, P2 = .18 or 18%, P3 = .23 or

23%, P4 = .48 or 48%, which add up to

100%. Then we say P1 is not sped up, so

S1 = 1 or 100%, P2 is sped up 5x, so S2

= 5 or 500%, P3 is sped up 20x, so S3 =

20 or 2000%, and P4 is sped up 1.6x, so

S4 = 1.6 or 160%.

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

By using the formula

or a little less than 1/2 the original running time

which we know is 1.

Therefore the overall speed boost is

or a little more than double the original speed

using the formula

Wikipedia

Amdahls law

Parallelization

In the special case of parallelization,

Amdahl's law states that if F is the

fraction of a calculation that is sequential

(i.e. cannot benefit from parallelization),

and (1 F) is the fraction that can be

parallelized, then the maximum speedup

that can be achieved by using N

processors is

Amdahls law

can be sped up by only a maximum of a factor

of 10, no matter how large the value of N

used. For this reason, parallel computing is

only useful for either small numbers of

processors, or problems with very low values

of F: so-called embarrassingly parallel

problems. A great part of the craft of parallel

programming consists of attempting to reduce

F to the smallest possible value.

Amdahls law

that must be computed sequentially and

N is the number of processors.

Amdahl's Law

performance improvement to be gained

from using some faster mode of

execution is limited by the fraction of the

time the faster mode can be used.

Amdahl's Law

Consider the following example:

Program

Loop 1

Loop 2

10% of total

200 lines execution time

10 lines

90% of total

execution time

Amdahl's Law

Overall speedup =

where

1

(1-f) + f

s

s - speedup of the enhanced portion

http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~prabhu/Tutorial/CACHE/amdahl.html

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