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UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE GRIGORE T.

POPA

MRGINEANU ANTONIA

MRGINEANU DAMIANA

UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE GRIGORE T. POPA

Epoci
istorice

Perioad

Durat

Regiuni

Cunotine
medicale

Societate
primitiv

~2 milioane de ani
n urm Mileniu
V- IV .H

~2 milioane Toate,
de ani
excepie
Antarctica

Medicin
primitiv

Lumea
Antic

Mileniu V- IV .H
mijlocul primului
mileniu d.H

~4000 ani

Europa, Asia

Medicin
naional i
tradiional

Evul Mediu

476 mijlocul
secolului 17

~1200 ani

Europa, Asia

Medicin
tradiional

~300 ani

Europa

Medicin
tiinific i
tradiional

~100 ani

Europa, Asia, Medicin


America
tiinific

Epoca
Baroc
Epoca
Modern

Mijlocul sec. 17-1918


1918-20..

UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE GRIGORE T. POPA

Perioada la care ne vom referi ncepe aproximativ cu 2


milioane de ani n urm i se ntinde pn la formarea
primelor civilizaii (mileniul IV .Hr.).
Aceast perioad este caracterizat de dou procese
importante: antropogenie i sociogonie.

Antropogenie- procesul apariiei i dezvoltrii omului,


a speciei umane
Sociogonie procesul de formare al societii umane

UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE GRIGORE T. POPA

Forma iniial a societii primitive este reprezentat de

conceptul de "primitive human herd" (precommunity), o


perioad de tranziie de la asociaiile zoologice pn la
generarea societii. Astfel, apariia societii ncepe cu:
1. Formarea i dezvoltarea relaiilor sociale
2. Agravarea conflictului ntre comportamentul egoist i cel
care accept ideea de colectivitate. Instinctele reprezentau
punctul central al acestei lupte, mai ales, nevoia de hran i
rivalitatea sexual (n condiiile promiscuitii).
Atenuarea acestor porniri zoologice este evideniat prin

evoluia de la cstoriile n grup pn la monogamie.

UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE GRIGORE T. POPA

Surse ale cunoaterii culturii i


ale medicinei primitive

instrumente, locuine, sanctuare, morminte.


Paleontologie: rmie umane care aveau urme de traume,
trepanaie, tuberculoz, tumori, osteomielit, rahitism, sifilis etc.

Arheologia:

Sperana medie de via a unei persoane era de 20-26 ani. ns,

n perioada urmatoare (aproximativ 100 mii de ani n urm)


sperana medie de via a crescut ( 1/100 persoane tria pn la
40 ani).

UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE GRIGORE T. POPA

Diferena major dintre om i animale const n tratarea

celorlali reprezentani ai speciei;


Tehnici aplicate:

- tratament prin proceduri extrem de simple, instinctive


tratamentul traumelor i al rnilor (suturi)

Sursele cunotinelor medicale sunt reprezentate de observarea

animalelor, a experienei personale i de grup

UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE GRIGORE T. POPA

Primele abiliti medico-igienice

1. Lupta pentru existen, bazat pe aciuni programate n

genofond (rezervorul genetic al unei populaii)- instinctul


autoconservrii.

2. Activitatea medico-igienic a oamenilor- form de practic

public bazat pe nelegerea necesitii de ajutor reciprocreprezint o activitate contient bazat pe experien i
cunoatere.

Surgical receptions: amputation, crises, overlaying of

seams, obstetric aid, castration, Cesarean section. Use


of simples, means of an animal origin.
Hygienic constructions: dwellings with the hearths,
near to sources with running water, avoidance to lodge
in boggy places. There were the clothes, first
installations of the personal hygiene, first burials.

Totem, its essence and communication


with medicine
"Totem" - my genus.
Base points of sight on totemism:
Totemism - the collective representations
influencing formation and development of human
culture, medicine.
In the ethnographic literature "Totemism" - the
archaic form of religion - a complex of beliefs, the
ceremonies based on representations about close
related communication of any group of people (a
sort, a tribe) with a certain animal, a plant, a
subject.

Animism (anima - soul) - belief in spiritual


entities: spirits, demons, forces, the nature, soul of

the live and dead person. (Taylor). There is a fear


of the dead.
Animism: evolution of representations about a
soul. Two groups of biological questions:
1. communication and difference of a live and dead
body,
2. dreams and merge of representations about life
and a phantom an illusive soul.

The theory of an animism :


1. Existence of soul after death
2. Spirits, gods (subordinating to itself and submission)
Soul place: heart, blood, an eye. (Disappearance of a

pupillary image). Spirit, breath, life - soul. Concept


about a soul as breath - in Semitic (Jewish) and Aryan
etymology.
Sources of an animism are:
Witchcraft,
Sorcery that is magic ceremonies, and have a direct
bearing on magic medicine and magic.

Spirituality and medicine.


Instinct of parental self-preservation. (Dolphins of

wounded relatives hold on a surface)


Ability to empathize
Communication with totemism and fetishism.
Fetishism dwellings of mythical beings a concentration
of magic, demonic manpower.
Fetishes were perceived by people as patrons and defenders
from enemies.
Fetishes demanded to themselves more careful and difficult
reference than to other subjects.

MAGIC AND MAGIC MEDICINE


Magic - the phenomenon of the mind which has arisen at

the primitive person, remained till now, affected on all


spheres of culture: religion, a science, art, medicine.
1. The modern dictionaries: "magic" - the ceremonies
connected with belief in supernatural ability of the person
to influence people and natural phenomena.
2. Magic ideology and the outlook of the primitive person
connecting irrational and rational, a stage of development
of consciousness, that united later science and religion.

Magic practice (ceremonies, dances, songs, spells) -

result of comprehension of the exclusive position in


the nature.
Sensation of fear and powerlessness will appear then
when there is a religion, leadership, the power and an
inequality. The person lost belief in elemental forces.
Remained:
1) belief in domination over the nature,
2) belief in reserve possibilities of the person,
3) ability to use the biological possibilities and mental

energy for influence on other people and the


environmental nature.
These three parameters also are the cores of "magic
medicine".