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New Media

Building a case study

• To develop a short case study to explore
SHEP and discuss Key Concepts involved
in New Media
• Using the text Second Life.
• What is Second Life?

• Discuss from what

you have seen online
and what we
explored last term
and then in your own
words write a pithy
Key Concepts
• View the ‘trailer’ again and while doing so
make notes on the sheets supplied.

• Second Life

• Which Key Concepts are going to be most

relevant in considering Second Life?
• How will they apply and why?
• During the next sequence of slides you will
be using Theory prompt to help develop
your own ideas and analysis of Second Life.

• This should lead you to some areas which

will require further investigation (for Home
Study) and consolidation of your notes in
your own time on your weebly.
Forms and Languages
• Consider the aesthetic of Second Life.
• How does it mirror the real world?
• How does it offer an ‘enhanced’
• What is it’s appeal to us visually?
Audience Theory 1
• Far from being a passive mass, audiences were made
up of individuals who actively consumed texts for
different reasons and in different ways.
• In 1948 Lasswell suggested that media texts had the
following functions for individuals and society:
• Surveillance
• Correlation
• Entertainment
• Cultural transmission

• Can we apply Lasswell’s theory to Second Life - does it

fullfil any of the functions he suggests?
Audience Theory 2
• Researchers Blulmer and Katz expanded this theory and
published their own in 1974, stating that individuals might
choose and use a text for the following purposes (ie uses and
• Diversion - escape from everyday problems and routine.
• Personal Relationships - using the media for emotional and
other interaction, eg) substituting soap operas for family life
• Personal Identity - finding yourself reflected in texts, learning
behaviour and values from texts
• Surveillance - Information which could be useful for living eg)
weather reports, financial news, holiday bargains.

• How does Second Life exploit Blulmer and Katz’s theory?

• Can we create a new amendment to B and K that takes into
account current developments?
• “Gauntlett, who coined the ‘Media 2.0’ response
(see for the detail), argues
that people don’t just get represented by the
media any more. Instead, they use Web 2.0
platforms to make their own media, share it with
the world and thus represent themselves.” Dr
Julian MacDonald, Media Magazine April 2008.

• How do Guantlett’s ideas apply to Second Life?

• How does Second life take this idea of Web 2.0
further still? And if so how?
Web 2.0 and Audience
• “The belief that Web 2.0 is an expression of ‘we
media’ suggests that this key concept is most
likely to have evolved. In breaking down the
institutional barriers between producers and
audiences Web 2.0 has democratised the
media.” Nick Lacey, MM April 2008

• Is Second Life an example of a wrestling of

control away from institutions towards the
audience and consequent power or is it the
• Review the trailer and make further annotation in light of the
• Second Life
• How should we talk/write about the idea of wider contexts -
SHEP - with regard to Second Life?
• Who uses it - institutions, companies, organisations,
individuals? Why?
• Think about how money is generated.
• Does the virtual environment have any form of government?
• In what circumstances could Second Life become more
significant globally?
• You have 30 minutes to write a short essay
on second life using your annotations, the
theory and exploration of wider concepts.
Secondary Texts
• As you develop your Case study essays consider the following text for
comparison and research. Of course you are free and actively
encouraged to add more of your own.


• Dependency Theory
MEST 3 Home study
• Complete essay case studies on Second Life
using secondary texts and developing your
own arguments.
• Due Monday 18th January.

Critical Investigation
• Individually review what you have done so
far on your CI and LP.
• Use the checklist to identify areas which
need development.
• Can you formulate a question?
• What areas do you need to focus on?
• Use the groups to support your
• In turns share your current ideas and issues
which need solving and as a group come up
with some possible angles, solutions,
questions or hypotheses.
• Individually refine your CI and LP in light of the groups

• Tutorials:
• Hafsa 11.55am Thur
• Rasha 12.05pm Edel 1.30pm
• Crystal 12.15pm Marwa 1.40pm
• Safa 12.25pm Alana 1.50pm
• Manisha 12.35pm All 2pm
• Review of research and planning
• Individual tutorials leading to new plans