Sunteți pe pagina 1din 23

OOGENESIS

Primary
oocyte

Primary
spermatocyte

Meiosis I

Meiosis I

Secondary
spermatocytes

Secondary
oocyte

Meiosis II
Spermatids

Polar bodies

Meiosis II

Spermiogenesis

Spermatozoa

Ovum

Differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.


Spermatogenesis
1.

Four gametes from each primary


spermatocyte

Oogenesis
1.

One gamete from each primary


oocyte

2. Four small gametes of equal size

2. One large gamete + 2-3 polar bodies

3. Most cytoplasm is shed from


spermatocyte

3. Cytoplasm conserved in one large


gamete - may increase. Thus, in the
final gamete there is a large amount
of cytoplasm.

4. Diplotene relatively short

4. Dipotene very long - dictyate state

5. Functions in fertilization only after


meiosis is complete

5. Often functions in fertilization before


meiosis is complete

Specializations of sperm and egg


Spermatozoan
1.

Transfer of genetic information to next generation

2.

Locomotion

3.

Penetration of barriers surrounding the egg

4.

Fusion with oolemma

5.

Receptor mediated recognition of egg

Ovum
1.

Transfer of genetic information to next


generation

2.

Chemoattraction of spermatozoan

3.

Prevention of polyspermy

4.

Storage of nutrients (importance varies)

5.

Storage of cytoplasmic information (importance


varies)

All oocytes remain in


All
oocytes
remainstate
in the
the
dictyate
(quiescent) until
stimulated by hormones
during the menstrual
cycle to continue their
maturation

All oocytes remain in


All oocytes remain in the
the dictyate state
(quiescent) until
stimulated by hormones
during the menstrual
cycle to continue their
maturation

The Dictyate State


1.

A sort of stasis where the developing oocyte arrests


in diplotene of the first meiotic prophase following initial
maturation while the mother is an embryo in her
mothers womb.

2.

Mediated by a meiosis stabilizing factor that is secreted


by the follicle cells of the primordial follicle.

3.

At the beginning of a menstrual cycle a number of


oocytes in primordial follicles are stimulated by pituitary
gonadotropins to continue their maturation.

a.

Mainly due to leuteinizing hormone (LH) concentration

b.

Either blocks or deactivates the meiosis stabilizing


factor

c.

As a result, egg maturation continues and meiosis I


occurs

4.

In many species (including humans), the oocyte then


arrests at metaphase of meiosis II until after
fertilization.

All oocytes remain in


All oocytes remain in the
the dictyate state
(quiescent) until
stimulated by hormones
during the menstrual
cycle to continue their
maturation

Number of eggs stimulated to begin maturation in a


females lifetime.
Number of years between puberty and menopause ~ 40

Number of menstrual cycles per year ~ 12


Number of eggs stimulated to continue maturation at each menstrual cycle ~ 9
So, if a woman is never pregnant, the number of eggs she will loose due to
the menstrual cycle is about:
40 x 12 x 9 = ~ 4320 eggs
Thus, the vast majority of eggs (~495,680) lost during her life degenerate
without every being stimulated to continue their maturation.

Follicular development

Pictures of follicle stages in digital lab manual.

All oocytes remain in


the dictyate state
(quiescent) until
stimulated by hormones
during the menstrual
cycle to continue their
maturation

Storage of energy, raw materials and information in the egg


1. Previtelligenic phase
Occurs through early diplotene (during the dictyate state, diplotene may be as
long as 50+ years)
Lampbrush chromosomes form - RNA transcription including cytoplasmic
information for development
2. Vitellogenic phase - starts after the egg is stimulated to continue its maturation
Occurs during middle to late diplotene

1. Pre-vitellogenic phase
Nucleus swells to form germinal vesicle

Pictures of frog follicles in digital lab manual.

The nucleus will continue as a germinal


vesicle into the vitellogenic phase.

Pre-vitellogenic and vitellogenic phases


Frog

Lampbrush chromosomes present RNA synthesis

Pictures of lampbrush chromosomes and frog


follicle.

Chicken
http://www.luc.edu/depts/biology/dev/lampbr.htm
http://rat.inst.bio.spbu.ru/posters/Paris2001/gsa_p1f1.jpg

Vitelligenic phase - Yolk deposition


1.

Vitellogenins - estrogen stimulates synthesis of vitellogenins in liver or


equivalent organ. Transported to ovary by circulatory system. Follicle
cells may mediate transfer into egg.

2.

Molecular structure of vitellogenins modified in the egg. Deposition of


yolk in cytoplasm mediated by enzymes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi
bodies, mitochondria. Yolk platelets formed.

3.

Vitellins - definitive yolk. Composition - lipid, protein, carbohydrate,


phosphorus

http://www.luc.edu/depts/biology/dev/vitellog.htm

2. Vitellogenic phase - yolk deposition


a. In species with yolky eggs, size of oocyte increases dramatically

Pictures of frog follicle stages in digital lab manual.

Egg classification by amount of yolk:


1.

Polylecithal, megalecithal - a huge amount of yolk (birds, reptiles, bony


fish)

2.

Mesolecithal - medium amount of yolk (amphibians)

3.

Microlecithal, oligolecithal - very little yolk (most mammals)

Egg classification by distribution of yolk:


1.

Telolecithal - yolk distributed in gradient, concentrated toward one


pole of egg, usually the vegetal pole (e.g. amphibians).

2.

Isolecithal - yolk evenly distributed throughout egg cytoplasm (e.g.


sea urchins, human)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Salmoneggskils.jpg

Cytoplasmic Information
Where does it come from?
Some of the RNA transcribed from DNA during
diplotene of the first meiotic prophase and stored in
cytoplasm in inactive form until needed during
development.

Whats it for?
1.

Fast start for development.

2.

Can determine fate of specific groups of cells, e.g.


primordial germ cells in amphibians and insects.

Ovulation

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/femalerepro_3.gif

Ovulation
In mammals, the egg is ovulated as a
secondary oocyte that is at metaphase
of the second meiotic division and is
surrounded by layers of cumulus follicle
cells.

Secondary oocyte of hampster from which the


cumulus cells have been removed by treatment
with hyaluronidase.

http://www.talbotcentral.ucr.edu/mammalianfert.htm
http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/reprod/fert/gxport.html

Bovine secondary oocyte surrounded by


cumulus follicle cells

Ovulation [research performed on hampster follicles (Martin et


al., 1981; Schroeder and Talbot, 1982)]

1.

Enzymes weaken the follicle wall

2.

Smooth muscle cells at base of follicle


contract

3.

This forces the cumulus oophorus containing


the oocyte toward the weakened follicle wall,
which ruptures

4.

The oocyte + surrounding cumulus cells are


forced out of the follicle.
Arrows indicate weakened
follicle wall
Arrowheads indicate base
of follicle where cumulus +
oocyte are or were located

http://www.talbotcentral.ucr.edu/mammalianfert.htm
http://www.obgyn.net/medical.asp?page=/english/pubs/features/mcgill-student-projects/ovulation-image

Corpus luteum

stratum granulosum + theca interna give rise to


the corpus luteum.

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/femalerepro_3.gif

Picture of cat corpora lutea in digital lab manual.

stratum granulosum + theca interna give rise to


the corpus luteum.