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Fruit Juice

Fruit juices are beverages that are obtained from the edible part of a
fruit.
They are usually processed such that the physical, chemical,
organoleptical and nutritional characteristics of the juices of the fruit
extract is maintained (European Commision - Agricultural and Rural
Development, 2005).

Forms of Fruit Juice


Without Pulp
With Pulp
Purees
Pulps
Nectars

Natural Juice
Mixed Juice
Concentrated Juice
Source: Lozano, J. (2006). Fruit Manufacturing: Scientific Basis, Engineering Properties and Deriorative Reactions of
Technological Importance. Springer.

Fruit Juice Processing

Water used for Fruit Juice Processing


Wash water for the fresh fruits
Heating Processes in the form of steam (Pasteurization)
Solvent for mixing the other ingredients and the fresh fruit extract
Cleaning the equipment

Common Sources of Water Supply


Groundwater
Municipal Water

Water Parameters
Absence of microorganisms (Total count <10)
Hardness (Total Hardness = 300 ppm)
Turbidity (5 NTU)
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS = 250 ppm)
Chlorides/Residual Chlorine (Cl = 0.2 0.5)
Silica (Silica = 0)
pH (pH 6.5-8.5)
Source: DENR. (1994). Philippines Standards for Drinking Water. Philippines.

Water used in Industry for Fruit Juice

Purified Water process flow (The Healthy Hydration Company, 2009)

Municipal
Water

Municipal Water
Well

Activated Carbon
Filtration

Water Softener

Reverse Osmosis

Storage tank (to


packaging)

Ozone Disinfection

UV light
Disinfection

Microfiltration

Processed Water

Ground
water

Raw Water

UV Light
Disinfection

Activated
Carbon Filter

Storage Tank

Reverse
Osmosis

Ion Exchange

Demineralized Water

Chlorine
Ground
water

Raw Water
Tank

Sand Filter

Activated
Carbon Filter

Cation
Exchanger

Storage Tank

Mixed Bed

Anion
Exchanger

Degasifier

Common Water Processing Steps


Activated Carbon Filtration
Activated carbon filtration is used to remove the residual chlorine,
organic matter and odor of the water.
Demineralization Process
Demineralization is done to remove the hardness in water. Water
hardness is caused by Magnesium and Calcium ions. This may also constitute
traces of other ions like Sodium and Potassium. Hardness in water may cause
scales and fouling in the equipment. This may also affect the taste of the water.
The processes that are usually used to demineralize the water is ion exchange.
Disinfection
The common process of disinfection is by UV light. Addition of chlorine
can also be done in order to remove the microorganisms in the water.

Activated Carbon Filtration


Activated carbon filtration is used to remove the chlorine, residual
chlorine, organic matter and odor of the water.
It is based on the principle of adsorption.

Activated Carbon Particle


(Culp, G.L., and R.L. Culp. 1974. New Concepts in Water Purification. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York)

Demineralization Process
Cation and Anion Exchange Resins
Mixed Bed Resins
Cation Exchange Column Cations are removed from the water (Mg2+,
Ca2+, Na+, K+)
Anion Exchange Column Anions are removed from the water
(carbonates and sulfates)
Mixed Bed Column used to remove both cations and anions.

Disinfection
Disinfection is the process by which pathogenic organism are
inactivated for killed to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases
and to make sure that the water is safe for human consumptions or to
be expelled to the environment.

UV light Disinfection water passes through a vessel with a UV lamp


and causes microbial inactivation. As the water passes through, the
microorganisms in the water are exposed to the intense UV light energy
which causes the damage to their genetic molecules that are needed for
reproductive functions. It prevents the microorganisms to multiply
(Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2008).

Basic schematic of UV unit with bulb

UV light Disinfectant Equipment

Addition of Chlorine
The most common disinfectant not only in the industry but even used
as cleaning agents in households and other establishments.
It is found to effectively remove and inactivate pathogens in water.
Inexpensive disinfection agent compared to other disinfection
process.
Low production and operating costs
If excess chlorine is present in water, stomach discomfort may be
experienced when consumed by humans. It may affect the smell and
taste of the water.

References
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. (2008, November). Ultraviolet
Disinfection of Private Water Supplies for Household or Agricultural Uses.
Canada.
DENR. (1994). Philippines Standards for Drinking Water. Philippines.
European Commision - Agricultural and Rural Development. (2005). CODEX
GENERAL STANDARD FOR FRUIT JUICES AND NECTARS. Europe.
Lozano, J. (2006). Fruit Manufacturing: Scientific Basis, Engineering
Properties and Deriorative Reactions of Technological Importance. Springer.
The Healthy Hydration Company. (2009). Nestle Waters. (Nestle) Retrieved
November 26, 2014, from Nestle-Waters: http://www.nestlewaters.com/brands/water-quality/purified-water
Culp, G.L., and R.L. Culp. 1974. New Concepts in Water Purification. Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York