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Presented

by
GROUp no
GROUP MEMBERS

NEETHA RAO
PRAVEEN JACOB
GURU DARSHAN
ARLEEN
CHANDRASHEKAR
ABHIJEET POONJA
OVERVIEW
• Meaning and role of technology
• Role of IT in POM
• Classification
• Tools used in Design Technology
• Issues deliberated in the use of
automation
• Managing technological change
• Technology change
Meaning of technology

• Technology: Know how, physical things and


procedures used to produce parts and
services.
• Advanced Technology: Application of the
latest scientific or engineering discoveries to
the design of production and operations
processes.
Role of IT in POM

Influence on Production organizations:


• the organization of production,
• the capital investment in plant and
equipments, building etc.,
• the scale or volume of production operations,
• the influence of labor relations in production
operations.
Influence on production strategy
• Mgmt vitally concerned with the technology
of the production process.
• it must design a highly sophisticated
production control system for batch
production, or a materials management
system for high capacity assembly line
operations.
Classification
Technology can be classified as:
• Manual technology
• Mechanised technology
• Automated technology
• Current technology
• Appropriate technology
• State-of-the-Art technology
• Advanvced technology
• Obsolete technology
• Capital-intensive technology
• Labour-intensive technology
CHOICE OF
TECHNOLOGY
• Internal Factors
– availability of funds for investment,
– product life cycle and technology-life cycle
position,
– present plant capacity and technology adopted
(i.e., current technology).
• External Factors
– government policies and regulations,
availability of resources such as raw materials,
energy, skilled labour etc., required for using the
new technology,
– market scenario (market demand, customer
requirement of product quality etc.)
Technology Life Cycle

• Innovation
• Syndication
• Diffusion
• Substitution
Primary Areas
• Product technology
• Process technology
• Information technology
• Design technology
• Production or Manufacturing Technology
• Technology in Services
• Virtual Reality Technology
• Disruptive Technology
• Advanced or High-tech Production Technology
Computer Aided Design
(CAD)
• It is an electronic system using computers for
designing new parts or products or modifying
existing ones, replacing the traditional drafting work
done, by a draftsman on a drafting board.
Advantages of CAD

• Saves time and money


• Determine costs and test variables
• Low cost of design
• Eliminates manual drafting completely
• Faster development
Two extensions of CAD
technology
• Design for manufacture and assembly
(DFMA)
• 3-D object modeling
Computer Aided Design and
Manufacture (CAD/CAM)
• Computer-aided-manufacture (CAM) refers to
the use of computer software to direct and
control manufacturing equipment
Advantages of CAD/CAM
systems
• Product quality
• Shorter design time
• Production cost reduction
• New range possibilities
• Minimum involvement of direct workers
• Higher quality and productivity.
.
Cad CAM

GEOMETRIC
. NC/CNC
MODELLING MACHINES

ANALYSIS ROBOTICS

DATABASE GEOMETRIC
KINEMATICS
MODELLING

AUTOMATED FACTORY
DRAFTING MANAGEMENT

•NC- Numerical Control


•CNC- Computer Numerical Control

CNC- Computer Numerical Control


Standard for the Exchange of
Product Data (STEP)
STEP provides a format allowing the electronic
transmittal of three dimensional data to be
exchanged internationally, allowing
geographically dispersed manufacturers to
integrate design, manufacture and support
processes
Virtual Reality Technology

Virtual reality is a visual form of


communication in which images substitute for
the real thing, but still allow the user to
respond interactively

PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGY
• Numerical control and computer numerical
control
• Automated process controls
• Vision systems
• Robots
• Automated identification systems (AIS)
• Automated guided vehicles (AGV)
• Automated flow lines
FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

BY
GURU DARSHAN
• A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a
configuration of a group of production
machines (or work stations) connected by
automated material handling and
transferring machines and integrated by
computer system which can give
instructions to produce hundreds of different
parts in whatever order specified.
Advantages

• Improved capital utilization


• Lower direct labour cost
• Reduced inventory
• Consistent quality
• Improved productivity
Disadvantages
• High initial capital investment
• Limited ability to adopt to product changes
• Substantial preplanning, tooling & fixture
requirements
• Standardization of part designs needed to reduce
numbers of tools required
• Requires long planning & development cycle to
install the FM’s
Computer integrated
manufacturing (CIM)
• Computer integrated Manufacturing is a
system which acts as a bridge or umbrella to
integrate product design and engineering,
process planning and manufacturing using
complex computer systems. It integrates
CAD, CAM, FMs, inventory control,
warehousing and shipping
Enterprise resource planning
(ERP)
• ERP systems comprise latest comprehensive
software packages to automate a number of
business processes. These softwares integrate most
of the business functions in an organization ERF
systems have automated manufacturing processes,
organized account books, streamlined corporate
departments such as human resources and facilitate
business process reengineering.
AUTOMATION ISSUES

BY
Arleen
• High tech, mid tech or low tech production
• Building manufacturing flexibility
• Justifying investments in automation
• Deciding among Automation Alternatives
• Managing technological change
Advantages:
• Increased output and higher productivity.
• Improved and uniform quality.
• Reduced costs.
• Fewer accidents.
• Better production control.
• Dangerous and unpleasant tasks can be performed by
robots.
Disadvantages:
• Heavy capital investment.
• Displacement of labour.
• Loss of suggestions from employees.
• Design specifications for raw materials can not be
relaxed.
• Cost of shut down of automated plant due to shortage
of materials is quite high.
• Dehumanization.
• MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY
• Technology and the manager
• Components of information technology
– Hardware
– Software
– Databases
– Telecommunication
CONTD

BY…..
CHANDRASHEKAR
Technology and the manager

What should a manager know about technology?


one view is that the manager merely need to understand
what a technology can do, including its cost and
performance . effective manager must also understand how
the technology works and what goes on in the technology.
Role of technology in improving business
performance

• Technology is probably the most important


force driving the increase in global
competition. Companies that invest in and
apply technology tend to have stronger
financial position than the companies don’t.
example : IBM and SUN Microsystem, inc,
believe that JAVA technology holds the key
to new business opportunities.
Components Of Information Technology

• Information technlogies is mainly made up of


four sub- technologies.
• Hardware
• Software
• Database
• Telecommunications.
Hardware

• A computer and the devices connected to it


are called hardware
Software
• The computer programs written to make the
hard ware work and to carryout different
application tasks are called software.
Database

A data base is a collection of interrelated data


or information stored on a data storage device
such as computer hard drive, a floppy disc or
a tape. A data base can be firms inventory
records or customer demand information.
Telecommunications

• Fibre optics, telephones , modem, fax machine


etc. make electronic networks possible. Such
networks an d the use of compatible software,
allow computer users at one location to
communicate directly with computer users at
another location.
Creating and applying technology

• Applying technology is ongoing challenge for


organizations.
there are various ways this can be done. One
way for a firm to acquire new technology is the
firm’s own research and development efforts
which create new knowledge of materials and
processes and then apply them to create and
introduce new products and production
processes.
The various stages of R&D projects include

1.Basic research stage

2.Applied research

3.Development stage
Basic research:

• Involves work that explores the potential of narrowly


defined technological possibilities to generate
knowledge and technlological advances.
Applied research stage:
involves work geared towards solving the practical
problem and is results are more likely to lead to
actual improvements is product, processes, and
services.
Development

Involves tae activities that run a specified set


of technologies into consideration ease of
production and marketability.
Technology as a competitive advantage

A new technology should create some kind of


competitive advantage. Competitive advantage is
created by increasing the value of product to a
customer or reducing the costs of bringing the
products to the market.
Managing technological change.

some of the suggestions to production managers to


production managers on how to manage changes in
production technology
• Have a master plan of automation
• Recognise the risks in going for automation
• Do not try to automate everything at once.
• People are the key to the successful impementation
of automation projects.
• DECIDING ON AUTOMATION
ALTERNATIVES

BY
ABHIJEETH POONJA
(1)Economic factors
(2) Effect on market share
(3) Effect on product quality
(4)Effect on manufacturing flexibility
(5) Effect on labour relations
(6) The amount of time required for implementation
(7) Effect of automation implementation on ongoing
production
(8) Amount of capital investment required
• MANAGING TECHNOLOGY IN A
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT