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In The Name Of ALLAH

Study of

Sloshing Effects, In Cylindrical


Tanks
Ali Sarreshtehdari

Project Goals
Finding

Effects of Sloshing on
Cylindrical Tanks
Avoid from Critical Conditions
Find the Procedure of Baffles Design
Modified Present Tanks to other
Missions
Designing Safe & Better Tanks, for Each
Condition *

Introduction
Sloshing

is the Periodic Motion of the Free


Surface of a Liquid in a Partially Filled Tank
or Container Can be Caused by Several
Factors
Sloshing Viewed in Many Industry
Applications
Sloshing Study in Two Domain of Science :
1. Hydrodynamic
2. Hydroelasticity *

Introduction
In

(Cont...)

Freely Slosh , it Can Produce Forces That


Cause Instability , Rollover and Failure or
Damage in Tank or Container in Some Cases
Sloshing Magnitude and Hence its Effects
Depends on Known Parameters
Baffles Used as Sloshing Suppression
Devices *

History
1952

RODRIGUEZ , GRAHAM & ABRAMSON


(Tests in Airplane & Missile Control)

1989

BRYSON
(Tests in Airplane &
Missile Control)
1992 ARMENIO (Marine Transport)
SANKAR &
PATANKAR (liquid Carriers)
1997 VENUGOPAL & BERNSTEIN
(Big Tanks
Like Dams) , FEDDEMA ,
(Maximum Velocity
to Transfer) *

Chaptures Review
Chap.

1Introduction
Chap. 2General Study of Analytic
Solution
Chap. 3Analytic Solution of Slosh in
Cylindrical Tanks & Application
relations *

Chaptures Review
Chap.

(Cont...)

4Dynamic Simulation of Slosh


Phenomena
Chap. 5Methods of Test &
Dimentionless Analysis
Chap. 6Conclusion & Solve an
Example *

Analysis Methods
Analytical

Methods
- Mathematics Based With Boundary Conditions &
Some Assumptions
- Dynamic Modelling (1. Theoritical)
Experimental Methods
- Dynamic Modeling (2. Exprimental)
- Dimensionless Groups
Numerical Methods
- CFD Codes , ...*

Analytical Method
Assumptions
Mathematics

Modeling
- Differential
Eqations
- Boundary Conditions
Solve Equation
Obtain Unknown & Desired Parameters Natural Frequency
- Pressure,
Forces & Moments *

Assumptions
Rigid

Tank
Non Viscose Fluid
Incompressible Fluid
Small Movement, Melocity & Change for
Free Surface
Irrotational Flow With no Source or Sink
Homogenous Flow *

Diff. Equation
Irrotational

Flow : V=
(x,y,z,t) Which :
V=u i+
v j+ w k u = /x v =
/y
w = /z *

Boundary Conditions
Bottom

of Tank

Vertical

Tank Wall

Free

Surface

1
0
z

1
0
r
1
1
g
0*
2
t
z
2

Solve Equation
With Sepration of Variables Method :

1 (r , , z , t ) T (t ) R(r )G ( ) Z ( z )
Obtained Equation :

1 (r , , z , t ) an e
n 1

i n t

Cosh[n ( z / a h / a )]
Cos
J 1 (n r / a ) *
Cosh(n h / a )

Desired Parameters
Natural Frequency :

g
n tanh(n h / a )
a

Pressure Distribution :
2

J 1 (n r / a )
r
2

2
i t
P (r , , z , t ) x0 ae Cos 2

2
2
a
(

)
J
(

)(

n 1
n
1
n
n 1)

Cosh[n ( z / a h / a )]
gz *
Cosh(n h / a )

Desired Parameters
Fx

Fy

aP1Cosdzd

Mx

(Cont...)

aP Sindzd

ap (h / 2 z ) Sindzd

My

ap1 (h / 2 z )Cosdzd

P2 r 2 Sindrd
P2 r 2Cosdrd

Note :
p1= Press. On Wall

&

p2= Press. On Bottom *

Desired Parameters

(Cont)

2
2
a
(

)
tanh(n h / a)
2
n
Fx a x2 h

2
2
2

1
)(
1

)
n 1
n
n
n


( / 2 ) 2
2
2
3

M y a hx0

tanh(n h / a)
(
1)
2
2
2
n h / a Cosh(n h / a)
4h n 1 n (n 1)(1 / n )

Fy M x 0 *

Dynamic Simulation
With

Mass-Spring System

With

Mass-Spring-Dashpod System

With

Pendulum System *

Mass-Spring System

Mass Spring Sys.

Equations

Kinematic Energy :

1
1
1
T mn ( x 0 h0 0 ) 2 I 0 02 mnVn2
2
2
2 n 1

Potensial Energy :

U m0 gh0 (1 cos 0 ) mn g[hn (1 cos 0 ) xn sin 0 ] 1 / 2k x *


2
n n

Mass Spring Sys.

Equations

(Cont...)

L=T-U
Equation of Motion From Lagrange Method :

d L L


F
dt x 0 x 0
d
[m0 ( x 0 h0 0 ) mn ( x 0 x n hn 0 )] F *
dt

Mass Spring Sys.

Equations

(Cont...)

d L
L
(
)
M
dt a 0
a 0
d
[m0 ( x 0 h0 0 )h0 I 0 0 mn ( x 0 x n hn 0 ) hn ] mn gxn M
dt

mn ( x0 xn hn0 ) k n xn mn g 0 0 *

Mass Spring Sys.

F mT

m
1 n
n 1 mT

Solution

2 / n2

2
2
1 / n

mn

0
T 0

n 1 mT

M 0

hn 2 / n2 g / n2

2
2
1

g2
2 2
2hn g / 2 2 hn ( )

m
n
n
I 0 m0 h02 mn hn2 mT n
1 ( / n ) 2

n 1
n 1 mT

g
2
h
(

n
n

mn
n2
mT y0
*
2
1 ( / n )

n 1 mT

2
n

Mass Spring Sys.

Results

2g
k n mT
tanh(2n h / d )
2
h(n 1)

d
mn mT
tanh(2n h / d ) , m0 mT m0
2
n h(n 1)
n 1

d
1
hn h / 2 tanh(n h / d ) , h0
n
m0

I 0 I F m0 h02 mn hn2 *
n 1

m h
n 1

n n

Pendulum Sys.

Pendulum Sys. Equations


2
F mT mo m j .(1 2
)
2
j 2i j B j
j 1
N

2
M mT .hT mo .ho m j .h j .(1 2
)
2
j 2i j B j
j 1
N

2i jB j

j 1

j 2i j B j

m j l j .(

Mass Spring Sys.

Simplified Eq.

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.1

0.5

1
m1/mt
m2/mt
m3/mt
m4/mt

0.01
0.001
0.0001
h/a

Ex. Of Mechanical Models

Mass Spring Sys.

Simplified Eq.

(cont...)

1 1.841ga 1 tanh(ha 1 )

h1
1.08ah 1 tanh(0.920ha 1 )
h

m1
0.4547 ah 1 tanh(1.841ha 1 )
m

h0 1 m
m1 h1

( )( )
h 2 m0
m0 h

m0
m1
1
m
m

l1
0.5432ah 1 coth(1.841ha 1 )
h

k1 m11

c1 2m11 1

Dimensionless Analysis
Effective

parameters
1. Acceleration on tank
2. Tank diameter
3. Resultant liquid force on tank wall
4. Depth of liquid in tank
5. Excitation amplitude
6. Liquid viscosity *

Dimensionless Analysis
Effective

(Cont...)

parameters (Continue...) 7.
Liquid density
8. Excitation period
Physical parameters 1.length 2.Time
3.Force *

Dimensionless Analysis

(Cont...)

PIE BAKING HAM Theory :

( 1, 2, 3,, n-m) = 0
Where :
n = Number of Effective Parameters
m = Number of Base Parameter
= Combinations of Dimensionless Groups *

Dimensionless Analysis

(Cont...)

n-m=8-3=5
Therefor We Have Five Dimentionless Groups :

F
g
h x0 d (d / )
[
, , ,
]
3
2
2
( d ).(d / )
d / d d

There Are
Euler , Weber & Reynolds Dimentionless Groups
In Above Relation . *

Dimensionless Analysis

(Cont...)

Compararison of Non Zero Th. , Model & Full-Scale Tests


5

Zero Damping
h/d=0.500(Theory)

Dimentionless Force Amplitude

4.5

Model Test With Water ,


X0/d=.00833

4
3.5

Model Test With METHYLENE


BROMIDE , X0/d=.00417

Prototype Test , X0/d=00475

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

Frequency Parameter

CFD Codes

Conclusions
Sloshing

May Be a Hazardous
Phenomena In Control, Stability etc.
We Can Determine Sloshing
Frequency, Force & Moment, With
Various Methods
Depend of Our Sensitivity, We Can
Reduce Sloshing Elevation & Change
Natural Frequencies With Baffles *

Acknowledgement
I wish to thanks from :
Dr. GH. ATEFI
Mr. GH. NADI
Mr. A. EGHTESADI
Mr. D. REZAEE
And All of My Friends That Help Me To Provide This
Presentation *

Thank You For Attention


***

Sloshing Caused Factors


Path

form & properties of motion


Wind gusts during powered flight
Programmed changes in vehicle attitude
Attitude-stabilization control pulses
Separating impulses
Elastic deformation of the vehicle
Maneuver conditions *

Applications
Transferring

The Liquids In Robotic, Metal


Melting, Packaging Units & Tanker Trucks
Airplane Fuel Storage Tanks
Missiles With Liquid Tanks
Satellites
(Sloshing in Low Gravity Fields
Applications) *

Effective Parameters
Tank

Geometry
Propellant Properties
Effective Damping
Height of Propellant In The Tank
Acceleration Field
Perturbing Motion of The Tank *

Acceleration Fields
Low

Gravity Field
High Gravity Field

Defined With Bond

Number :

ga 2 Gravitational Force
Bo

Surface

tension
Forces

Bo 1 Surface tension Effects Can be Neglected

10 Bo 100 Consideration Of Low Gravity Effects May be Significance


B 10 Consideration Of Low Gravity Effect Is Re quired *
o

Some Of

Baffles Configuration

Some Of

Baffles Configuration