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# Response Of Linear SDOF

## Systems To Harmonic Excitation

Many dynamic systems are subjected to
harmonic (sinusoidal) excitation. Rotating
machinery is an example.
Objectives
Learn how o find response to harmonic
excitation.
Understand concept of resonance

Undamped systems
Response = harmonic wave with
frequency n +harmonic wave with
frequency of excitation
The first component is due to initial
conditions plus the force.
The second component is due to the force

## General equation for response to

force P sin(t )
x (0)
P
x (t ) x (0) cos( nt ) [

] sin( nt )
n m n ( n2 2 )

P
m( n2 2 )

sin(t )

## Harmonic Response Of Undamped System

x(0)=0.01 m, xd(0)=0.01
0.1

x( t)

xd ( t)
0.1
0

10

20
t

30

40

## Harmonic Response Of Undamped System

t 0 0.01 250zero initial displacement and velocity

.
2

x( t)

50

100

150
t

200

250

## Harmonic Response Of Undamped System

zero initial displacement and velocity

t 0 0.01 500
.
50

x( t)

50

100

200

300
t

400

500

## Harmonic Response Of Undamped System

natural
t 0 0.01
zero initial displacement and velocity
.
0.01

x( t)

6
t

10

Observations
Response=harmonic wave with frequency n
+harmonic wave with frequency of excitation
When excitation frequency is almost equal to
natural frequency, vibration amplitude is very large.
Rapid oscillation with slowly varying amplitude.
When excitation frequency is equal to the systems
natural frequency, vibration amplitude= . This
condition is called resonance.
When excitation frequency>>natural frequency,
vibration amplitude is very small. The reason is that
the system is too slow to follow the excitation.

Damped systems

x (t ) xc (t )
Free vibration
response (also called
transient response)

x p (t )
Particular response
response)

## Use equations that we learnt in the chapter for free vibration

response for transient response. Transient dies out with time.
Response converges to particular response with time.

We often ignore transient response and focus
Steady-state is response is solution of
equation of motion:
F
2
x 2 n x n x sin(t )
m

## From experience we know that:

x(t ) A cos(t ) B sin(t )

## Find coefficients A and B by substituting

assumed equation for response in
equation of motion and solving for these
coefficients.

response to sine wave is also sine wave
with same frequency as the excitation.
Amplitude of response equal to quasistatic response times dynamic
amplification factor. This is true for any
value of damping ratio

x (t ) A sin(t )
F
k
A
2 2
2
2
(1 ( ) ) 4 ( )
n
n

2
n

1
tan (
)

1 ( )2
n

1.041

1.5
1
0.5

x ( t 1)
p ( t 1)

0
0.5
1

1.041 1.5

0
0

6
t

10
10

5

6
4
2

x ( t 5)
p ( t 5)

0
2
4

0
0

6
t

10
10

1

0.5
x ( t 20)
p ( t 20)

0.5

0
0

0.5

1
t

1.5

2
2

## Effect of frequency and damping on amplitude

Natural freq.=5 rad/sec. Amplitude of excitation=1.

5.001
A 0.1
A 0.5
A 2

=0.1
=0.5

=0.5

0.046

0
0

10

15

20
20

## Effect of frequency and damping on phase

angle.
Natural freq.=5 rad/sec. Amplitude of excitation=1.

0.1
0.5 1.57
2
3.14 3.14

0
0

10

15

20
20

Observations

## Response amplitude depends only on damping ratio, ,

and ratio of frequency of excitation over natural frequency,
/n.
/n small, response amplitude = F/k (quasi-static
response)
/n much greater than one, response amplitude is close
to zero
/n =1, and small (less than 0.1), response amplitude
very large. If =0, response amplitude =
Response amplitude is maximum for
(resonant frequency).
m n 1 2 2
To reduce response amplitude a) change /n so that it is
as far away from 1 as possible, or b) increase damping.

Observations (continued)
Phase angle is always negative.
For small /n, phase angle is almost
zero.
For /n =1, phase angle is -900.
For large /n phase angle tends to
-1800.