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Atom structure

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


460 BC

Democritus develops the idea of atoms


he pounded up materials in his pestle and
mortar until he had reduced them to smaller
and smaller particles which he called

ATOMA
(greek for indivisible)

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


1808

John Dalton
suggested that all matter was made up of
tiny spheres that were able to bounce around
with perfect elasticity and called them

ATOMS

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


1898

Joseph John Thompson


found that atoms could sometimes eject a
far smaller negative particle which he called
an

ELECTRON

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


1904
Thompson develops the idea that an atom was made up of
electrons scattered unevenly within an elastic sphere surrounded
by a soup of positive charge to balance the electron's charge
like plums surrounded by pudding.

PLUM PUDDING
MODEL

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


1910

Ernest Rutherford
oversaw Geiger and Marsden carrying out his
famous experiment.
they fired Helium nuclei at a piece of gold foil
which was only a few atoms thick.
they found that although most of them
passed through. About 1 in 10,000 hit

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


helium nuclei

gold foil

helium nuclei

They found that while most of the helium nuclei passed


through the foil, a small number were deflected and, to their
surprise, some helium nuclei bounced straight back.

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


Rutherfords new evidence allowed him to propose a more
detailed model with a central nucleus.
He suggested that the positive charge was all in a central
nucleus. With this holding the electrons in place by electrical
attraction

However, this was not the end of the story.

HISTORY OF THE ATOM


1913

Niels Bohr
studied under Rutherford at the Victoria
University in Manchester.
Bohr refined Rutherford's idea by adding
that the electrons were in orbits. Rather
like planets orbiting the sun. With each
orbit only able to contain a set number of
electrons.

Bohrs Atom
electrons in orbits

nucleus

HELIUM ATOM
Shell

proton

+
-

electron
What do these particles consist of?

neutron

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Particle

Charge

Mass

proton

+ ve charge

neutron

No charge

electron

-ve charge

nol

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Atomic number

Atomic mass

He

the number of protons in an atom

the number of protons and


neutrons in an atom

number of electrons = number of protons

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Electrons are arranged in Energy Levels or
Shells around the nucleus of an atom.

first shell

a maximum of 2 electrons

second shell

a maximum of 8 electrons

third shell

a maximum of 8 electrons

ATOMIC STRUCTURE
There are two ways to represent the atomic
structure of an element or compound;

1.

2.

Electronic Configuration

Dot & Cross Diagrams

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION
With electronic configuration elements are represented
numerically by the number of electrons in their shells
and number of shells. For example;

Nitrogen
2 in 1st shell
5 in 2

nd

shell

configuration = 2 , 5
2

5 = 7

14

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION
Write the electronic configuration for the following
elements;
a)

Ca

20

b)

Na

40

2,8,8,2
d)

Cl

17
35

2,8,7

11
23

c)

2,8,1
e)

Si

14
28

2,8,4

8
16

2,6
f)

5
11

2,3

DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS


With Dot & Cross diagrams elements and compounds
are represented by Dots or Crosses to show electrons,
and circles to show the shells. For example;
X

Nitrogen

X X

XX

X X

14

DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS


Draw the Dot & Cross diagrams for the following
elements;
X
8
17
X
a) O
b)
Cl 35 X
16
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X X Cl X X
X
X
X
O
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

SUMMARY
1. The Atomic Number of an atom = number of
protons in the nucleus.
2. The Atomic Mass of an atom = number of
Protons + Neutrons in the nucleus.
3.

The number of Protons = Number of Electrons.

4.

Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells.

5.

Each shell can only carry a set number of electrons.

Bonding Atoms
Why do atoms bond?
each atom wants a full outermost energy
level
gain, lose, and share valence electrons to
achieve the duet or octet rule: being happy
gives each atom an electron configuration
similar to that of a noble gas
ex. Group 18: He, Ne, Ar

Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons
C would like to

Gain 4 electrons

N would like to

Gain 3 electrons

O would like to

Gain 2 electrons

Why are electrons important?


Elements have different electron
configurations
different electron configurations mean
different levels of bonding

Periodic table
The periodic table arranges all the elements in groups
according to their properties.

Vertical columns are


called GROUPS

Mendeleev

Horizontal rows are called PERIODS

The Periodic Table


Fact 1: Elements in the same group have the same number of
electrons in the outer shell (this correspond to their group
number)

He

Li

Be

Na

M
g

Al

Si

Cl Ar

Ca

Fe

Ni

C
u

Zn

Ag
Pt

E.g. all group 1 metals


have __ electron in
their outer shell

A
u

Ne

Br Kr
I

Xe

H
g

These elements have


__ electrons in their
outer shells

These elements
have __ electrons
in their outer shell

The Periodic Table


Fact 2: As you move down through the periods an extra
electron shell is added:

Li

Be

Na

M
g

Ca

E.g. Lithium has 3


electron Hin the
configuration 2,1

He

Sodium has 11
C
Fe
Ni
Zn
electrons in the
u
configuration 2,8,1
Ag
Pt

Potassium has 19
electrons in the
configuration __,__,__

A
u

H
g

Ne

Al

Si

Cl Ar
Br Kr
I

Xe

The Periodic Table


Fact 3: Most of the elements are metals:
These elements are
metals
H

He

Li

Be

Na

M
g

Al

Si

Cl Ar

Ca

Fe

Ni

C
u

Zn

Ag
A
u
This line divides metals
from non-metals
Pt

Ne

Br Kr
I

Xe

H
g
These elements are nonmetals

The Periodic Table


Fact 4: (Most important) All of the elements in the same
group have similar PROPERTIES. This is how I thought of the
periodic table in the first place. This is called PERIODICITY.
H

He

Li

Be

Na

M
g

Al

Si

Cl Ar

Ca

Fe

Ni

C
u

Zn

Ag
E.g. consider the group 1 metals.
They all:
1)

Are soft

2)

A H
Pt
u
g
Can be easily cut with a knife

3)

React with water

Ne

Br Kr
I

Xe

Atomic bonds:
an attempt to fill electron shells
Three types of atomic bonds:
1. Ionic bonds
2. Covalent bonds
3. Metallic bonds

IONIC BOND
bond formed
between
two ions by the
transfer of electrons

Formation of Ions from Metals


Ionic compounds result when metals react with
nonmetals
Metals lose electrons to match the number of
valence electrons of their nearest noble gas
Positive ions form when the number of
electrons are less than the number of protons

Group 1 metals

ion 1+

Group 2 metals
Group 13 metals

ion 2+
ion 3+

Formation of Sodium Ion


Sodium atom

Na
2-8-1
11 p+
11 e0

Sodium ion

Na +
2-8 ( = Ne)
11 p+
10 e1+

Formation of Magnesium Ion


Magnesium atom

Magnesium ion

Mg
2-8-2
12 p+
12 e0

2e

Mg2+

2-8 (=Ne)
12 p+
10 e2+

Some Typical Ions with


Positive Charges (Cations)
Group 1

Group 2

Group 13

H+

Mg2+

Al3+

Li+

Ca2+

Na+

Sr2+

K+

Ba2+

Learning Check
A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum
1) 1 e2) 2 e3) 3 eB.

Change in electrons for octet


1) lose 3e2) gain 3 e- 3) gain 5 e-

C.

Ionic charge of aluminum


1) 32) 5-

3) 3+

Solution
A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum
3)
3 eB.

Change in electrons for octet


1)
lose 3e-

C.

Ionic charge of aluminum


3) 3+

Learning Check
Give the ionic charge for each of the following:
A. 12 p+ and 10 e1) 0
2) 2+3) 2B. 50p+ and 46 e1) 2+
2) 4+3) 4C. 15 p+ and 18e2) 3+
2) 3- 3) 5-

Ions from Nonmetal Ions


In ionic compounds, nonmetals in 15, 16,
and 17 gain electrons from metals

Nonmetal add electrons to achieve the octet


arrangement

Nonmetal ionic charge:


3-, 2-, or 1-

Fluoride Ion
unpaired electron

:F

2-7
9 p+
9 e0

+ e

octet
1 -

: F:

2-8 (= Ne)
9 p+
10 e1ionic charge

Ionic Bond
Between atoms of metals and nonmetals
with very different electronegativity
Bond formed by transfer of electrons
Produce charged ions all states.
Conductors and have high melting point.
Examples; NaCl, CaCl2, K2O

Ionic Bonds: One Big Greedy Thief Dog!

1). Ionic bond electron from Na is transferred to Cl, this causes a charge
imbalance in each atom. The Na becomes (Na+) and the Cl becomes (Cl-),
charged particles or ions.

COVALENT BOND
bond formed by the
sharing of electrons

Covalent Bond
Between nonmetallic elements of similar
electronegativity.
Formed by sharing electron pairs
Stable non-ionizing particles, they are not
conductors at any state
Examples; O2, CO2, C2H6, H2O, SiC

Bonds in all the


polyatomic ions
and diatomics
are all covalent
bonds

NONPOLAR
COVALENT BONDS
when electrons are
shared equally

H2 or Cl2

2. Covalent bonds- Two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell


electrons.
Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Atom

Oxygen Molecule (O2)

POLAR COVALENT
BONDS
when electrons are
shared but shared
unequally

H2 O

Polar Covalent Bonds: Unevenly


matched, but willing to share.

- water is a polar molecule because oxygen is more electronegative than


hydrogen, and therefore electrons are pulled closer to oxygen.

METALLIC BOND
bond found in
metals; holds metal
atoms together
very strongly

Metallic Bond
Formed between atoms of metallic
elements
Electron cloud around atoms
Good conductors at all states, lustrous,
very high melting points
Examples; Na, Fe, Al, Au, Co

Metallic Bonds: Mellow dogs with


plenty of bones to go around.

Ionic Bond, A Sea of Electrons

Metals Form Alloys


Metals do not combine with metals. They form
Alloys which is a solution of a metal in a metal.
Examples are steel, brass, bronze and pewter.

Predicting Bond Type

Formula Weights
Formula weight is the sum of the atomic
masses.
Example- CO2
Mass, C + O + O
12.011 + 15.994 + 15.994
43.999

Practice
Compute the mass of the following compounds
round to nearest tenth & state type of bond:
NaCl;
23 + 35 = 58; Ionic Bond
C2H6;
24 + 6 = 30; Covalent Bond
Na(CO3)2;
23 + 2(12 + 3x16) = 123; Ionic & Covalent