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CONTENT

Introduction

Major Components and Requirement of Smart Dus


Smart Dust Technology
Working of Smart Dust
Mode of Communication
Current Advancements
Major Challenges
Advantages
Applications
Conclusion
References

INTRODUCTION
Smart dust is a tiny dust size device with extra-ordinary
capabilities

Smart dust combines sensing, computing, wireless


communication

capabilities

and

autonomous

power

supply within volume of only few millimeters and that too


at low cost
Very

small

and

light

in

weight

suspended

in

environment
Useful in monitoring real world

phenomenon without

Individual sensors of smart dust are often referred to as


motes because of their small size
These devices are also known as MEMS, which stands for
micro electro-mechanical sensors
The idea behind smart dust is to pack sophisticated
sensors, tiny computers and wireless communicators in to
a cubic-millimeter mote to form the basis of integrated,
massively distributed sensor networks
This device will be around the size of a grain of sand and
will contain sensors, computational ability, bi- directional
wireless communications, and a power supply

AJOR COMPONENTS AND REQUIREMENT


SMARTDUST
Smart dust requires mainly revolutionary advances
in

miniaturization,

integration

&

energy

management
Designers have used MEMS technology to build
small sensors, optical communication components,
and power supplies

Micro

electro

extremely

tiny

mechanical
mechanical

systems

consist

elements,

of

often

Measured in a micrometer millions of meter


Made in similar fashion as computer chip
The advantage of this manufacturing process is
not simply
achieved

that small structures can be

but also

that thousands or

even

millions of system elements can be fabricated


simultaneously
This allows systems to be both highly complex
and extremely low-cost

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the


integration

of mechanical elements, sensors,

actuators, and electronics on a common silicon


substrate through micro fabrication technology

While

the

electronics

integrated circuit (IC)

are

fabricated

using

process sequences (eg.

CMOS, Bipolar processes)


The micromechanical components are fabricated
using compatible "micromachining" processes that
selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or
add new structural layers to form the mechanical

Microelectronic integrated circuits-Brain of the system


-Allow microsystems to sense and control the
environment
Sensors gather information from the environment
through

measuring

biological,

chemical,

mechanical,
optical,

and

thermal,
magnetic

phenomena

Electronics - process the information derived


from the sensors and Smart Dust through some
decision making capability directs the actuators to
respond by moving, positioning, regulating, and

MEMS devices
manufactured
using
batch
fabrication
techniques
- similar to those used for integrated circuits
unprecedented
levels
of
functionality,
reliability, and
sophistication can be
placed on a small silicon chip at a
relatively low cost
Sensors and actuators
- most costly and unreliable part of a sensoractuator
electronics system.
- MEMS technology manufactures these using
batch
fabrication techniques,
increasing the reliability of the
sensors
and actuators to equal that of integrated
circuits

SMART DUST TECHNOLOGY

grated into a single package are

MS sensors

MS beam steering mirror for active optical transmission.

MS corner cube retro reflector for passive optical transmi


optical receiver.

gnal processing and control circuitry.

power source based on thick film batteries and solar cells.

Package has the ability


- to sense
-communicate
-self powered
A major challenge is to incorporate all these
functions while maintaining very low power
consumption
Sensors collect information from the environment
such as light, sound, temperature, chemical
composition etc.
Smart dust
schemes:

employs

types

of

transmission

-passive transmission using corner cube retro


reflector
to transmit to base stations

The photo diode allows optical data reception

Signal processing & control circuitry consists of


analog I/O, DSPs to control & process the
incoming data

The power system consists of a thick film battery


solar cell with a charge integrating capacitor for

Conti...

Laser Diode

Corner cube retro reflector

16

WORKING OF SMART DUST


The smart dust mote
- Run by 'Microcontroller'
- not only determines task performed by the
mote
- but consists of the power to the various
components of
the system to conserve
energy
Periodically microcontroller gets reading from one
of the sensors.
Which measures one of the no of physical or
chemical stimuli (temp. , air-pressure, vibration,
acceleration etc.).

Turns on optical receiver


- anyone trying to communicate.
This communication may include new programs
or messages
from other motes
Response to the message
- microcontroller will use the corner cube retro
reflector or
laser to transmit sensor data or a message to
a base
station or another mote.
The primary constraint in the design of the Smart
Dust motes
18
- volume

Mostly , the majority of the mote is powered of


- set with the help of timer
- When a timer expires, it powers up a part of
the
mote to carry out a job, then powers of.
Few of the timer controls the sensors that
measures one of the no of physical and chemical
stimuli.
When one of these timers expires, it powers up
the
corresponding sensor, takes a sample, and
converts it to a digital word.
Data get stored
19
- either directly in SRAM
- or microcontroller is powered up to do

After completing the task


- all timer powers of
- start counting again
Another timer controls the receiver
- timer expires, the receiver powers up and
look for an
incoming packet.
-If it doesnt see one after a certain length of
time, it is
powered down again.
Types of packet can received by mote
- program codes , stored in program memory.
allow to change the behavior of the mote
remotely
- messages from base station and
other
20
motes.

Message may be
- telling the mode to do something particular.
- being passed from one mote to another on its
way to a
particular destination .
Response to a message or to another timer expiring
the
microcontroller will assemble a packet containing
sensor data or
a message

21

CORNER CUBE RETRO REFLECTOR

corner cube retro reflector transmits information just by


oving a mirror and thus changing the reflection of a laser
m the base station. This technique is substantially more e
fficient than actually generating some radiation.

22

LASER DIODE

th the laser diode and a set of beam scanning mirrors, we

ansmit data in any direction desired, allowing the mote to

ommunicate with other Smart Dust motes

23

MODE OF COMMUNICATION
1.OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS
1.1 Passive-reflective systems
1.2 Active- steered laser systems
2. LISTENING TO A DUST FIELD
2.1 Imaging receivers
2.2 Video Camera
3. COMMUNICATING FROM A GRAIN OF SAND
3.1 Smart Pixel Imaging Receivers
24

. COMMUNICATING FROM A GRAIN OF SAND

mart Dusts full potential can only be attained when the se

odes communicate with one another or with a central base

ation.

reless communication facilitates simultaneous data collec

om thousands of sensors. There are several options for

ommunicating to and from a cubic millimeter computer.

dio-frequency and optical communications each have the

trengths and weaknesses.

25

Radio Frequency Transmission

Based on the generation, propagation and


detection of
electromagnetic waves with a frequency range
from tens of kHz
to hundreds of GHz.
Multiplexing techniques: TDMA . CDMA and FDMA
Their use leads to modulation, band pass filtering,
demodulation circuitry, and additional circuitry, all
26
of which

awbacks of RF communication

rge size of antenna.

communication can only be achieved by using time, freq


code division.

MA, FDMA, and CDMA have their own complications.

ey require modulation, band pass filtering and demodulat


cuitory

27

PTICAL COMMUNICATIONS

pproaches to optical communication are explored:


1) Passive reflective systems
2)Active steered laser systems.

assive communication system, the dust mote does not re


board light source. Instead, a special configuration of mir
ither reflect or not reflect light to a remote source.

ctive communication system, the dust mote require an


ard light source.

28

2.1 Passive-reflective systems

sists of three mutually orthogonal mirrors.

t enters the CCR, bounces of each of the three mirrors an


ected back parallel to the direction it entered.

MEMS version

one mirror mounted on a spring at an angle slightly a skew fr


endicularity to the other mirrors.
The mirrors low mass allows the CCR to switch between 0 &
to a thousand times per second
29

e communication system suffers several limit

ble to communicate with each other.

reflects only a small fraction of the light emitted from a b


ion, the systems range cannot easily extend beyond 1 km

30

.2 Active- steered laser systems

mote- to mote communication, an active steered laser


mmunication system uses an onboard light source to send
htly collimated light beam towards an intended receiver.

ered laser communication has the advantage of high pow


sity.

system allows communication over enormous distances


l watts of power.

31

a laser emits an infrared beam that is collimated with a l

ens directs the narrow laser beam into a beam steering m


ng the beam towards the intended receiver.

rate of approx. 5Mb/sec.

32

3. LISTENING TO A DUST FIELD

aging receivers

t from a large field of view can be focused into an image,


eyes or in a camera.

ge receiver utilizes.
is known as- space division multiple access (SDMA)

33

34

Conti...

deo camera

ight forward implementation of an imaging receiver

h member of colony of smart dust motes flashes its own s

rate of a few bits per seconds


each transmitter will appear in the video stream at a diferent
ocation in the image

35

Conti...

36

CURRENT ADVANCEMENTS
1.MICROBOTICS

Add legs or wings to smart dust and we get microbots

ike smart dust these synthetic insects will sense, think,


communicate.

hey have the ability to move about and interact physicall


with their environment.

Micro machining used

- to build micro actuators and micro mechanisms.


- forming legs and wings.

ntergrated on smartdust.

37

Crawling microbots

onsume only tens of micro watts of power.

he motors can lift more than 130 times the robots own w

38

lying microbots

y have a wing span of 10-25 mm and will sustain autonom


ht.

elopers folded 50 micron thick stainless steel into desired


pe to create the wings and exoskeleton.

oelectric motors attached to the exoskeleton actuate the w

39

OTS DUST

ey are large scale bodies for models for smart dust.

ey are devices that incorporate communications, process


ensors and batteries into a package about a cubic inch in

e basic structure of COTS dust consists of an Atmel


icrocontroller with sensors and communication unit.

mmunication unit is one of the following:


-> RF transceiver
-> Laser module
-> Corner cube reflector

40

Conti...

mart Pixel Imaging Receivers

s is a fully integrated CMOS imaging device that receives


p to a few megabits per second.

ring the receivers operations, each pixel autonomously


onitors its own signal, looks for a transmission, decodes i
ansmits the data of chip when it receives a valid data pac

ch pixel in the imager requires a photo sensor and circuits


erform analog signal processing and amplification, analog
gital conversion and an asynchronous serial receiver.
41

42

3.GOLEM DUST

sists of a CMOS IC that contains an integrated optical rece


analog to digital converter, and a custom controller.

designed to interface with a MEMS chip consisting of a so


array for powering the system, a corner cube retro reflec
a capacitor accelerometer which will be read by ADC.

entire system will be 6.6 mm3.

43

MAJOR CHALLENGES

o incorporate all these functions while maintaining a low


power consumption.

Maximising operating life given the limited volume of ener


storage.

The functionality can be achieved only if the total power


consumption is limited to microwatt levels.

An unbroken line of sight of path should be available for fr


space optical links.
44

ADVANTAGES

niaturization efort could help solve one of the most press


onomic problems of the day: run away energy costs.
nce attached to buildings walls, the sensors would form a
twork relaying data about each rooms temperature, light
midity to central computer that would regulate energy us
r a fraction of the cost of current climate control systems.
e emerging smart energy technologies potentially could s
tions on electricity costs, as buildings drain away more th
rd of the total energy supply.

45

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS
Games and sports

Traffic monitoring
Inventory control
Security
Identification and tagging
Predictive maintenance
Product quality control
Industrial facilities
Vehicles and systems
Appliances
Agriculture

Energy management
Building management
Temperature control
Lighting control
Fire systems
Smart office spaces
Computer interface
Virtual keyboard
3D virtual sculpturing
Health, medicine and wellness
Handicap aid

CONCLUS
ION

mart dust is made up of thousands of sand-grain-sized sen


hat can measure ambient light and temperature. The sens
each one is called a "mote" -- have wireless communicat
evices attached to them, and if you put a bunch of them n
ach other, they'll network themselves automatically.

d we will see the small dust motes being used in various


our life

REFERENCES

www.eecs.berkerly.edu

ttp://www.seminarsonly.com/computer%20science/Smart
st.php

ttp://www.redicecreations.com/specialreports/smartdust
atrix.html

www.robotics.eecs.berkely.edu

ttp://seminarcollections.com/topics/index/smart-dust