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2G RF Optimization

2G RF Network
Optimization Cases
Lampiran 5

Outline
Problems

Sysmtoms
Coverage Analysis
Drop Call Analysis
Call Setup Analysis
Handover Analysis
Speech Quality Analysis
Interference Reduction
Parameter Optim

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Concept for Optimisation

pr o
im
to
w k?
Ho twor
ne

Status of the
Network
Decide further
Analysis Program

Alternatives

Analyzing
Programs
Coverage
Dropped Calls

t
ve

Network
Snapshot

he

Call Setup Success


Handover Perf.
Speech Quality

Quick
Check

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General Check

Problem Symptoms
No service

High call drop rate


RF Network
No coverage
Interference
No coverage
Handover failure
No System Availability
Fixed Network BSS, SSS
Network Element Failures
Network Element Failure
Transmission Failures
Transmission Network Failures
Other networks
Mobile terminal

Low call setup success rate


RF Network
Poor speech quality
RF Network
No coverage
No coverage
Interference
Interference
Blocking
Poor handover performance
Fixed Network BSS, SSS
Fixed Network BSS, SSS
Network element failure
Blocking
Transmission network failure
Overload
Other networks
Other
Mobile Phone

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2G RF Optimization

Coverage Analysis

Signal Strength Case


Possible Reasons
Shadowed Antenna
Antenna Direction
Antenna Height / down tilt
Output Power
Missing Neighbor Relation
Site Location
Faulty Hardware e.g. antenna
Cell is down
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Page - 6

Signal Strength Case

Analysis
Shadowed Antenna

Output Power

Faulty Hardware

Visit site

Check output power

Check antenna installation

Parameters

Check alarm & BTS Error


log

Is there a better antenna


position at same site?

BSPWRT - NON BCCH FREQ

Visit site

Height/down Tilt

BSPWRB - BCCH FREQ

Missing Neighbor

Site Location

Add reduce down tilt?

Is the call dragged?

Possible to move site?

Can antenna be placed


lower or higher to give
better coverage?

Is low SS due to missing


neighbor relations

New antenna location at


same site? Is it necessary to
expand and build a new
site?

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Page - 7

Signal Strength Case


Possible Solutions
Change parameter BSPWR , BSPWRT.
Add neighbor relation.
Physical changes:
Antenna direction
Antenna height, tilt or position
New site as last option.

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Page - 8

Signal Strength Case


Possible Reasons
Shadowed Antenna
Antenna Direction
Antenna Height / down tilt
Output Power
Missing Neighbor Relation
Site Location
Faulty Hardware e.g. antenna
Cell is down
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Page - 9

Signal Strength Case

Analysis
Shadowed Antenna

Output Power

Faulty Hardware

Visit site

Check output power

Check antenna installation

Parameters

Check alarm & BTS Error


log

Is there a better antenna


position at same site?

BSPWRT - NON BCCH FREQ

Visit site

Height/down Tilt

BSPWRB - BCCH FREQ

Missing Neighbor

Site Location

Add reduce down tilt?

Is the call dragged?

Possible to move site?

Can antenna be placed


lower or higher to give
better coverage?

Is low SS due to missing


neighbor relations

New antenna location at


same site? Is it necessary to
expand and build a new
site?

kris.sujatmoko@gmail.com

Page - 10

Signal Strength Case


Possible Solutions
Change parameter BSPWR , BSPWRT.
Add neighbor relation.
Physical changes:
Antenna direction
Antenna height, tilt or position
New site as last option.

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Page - 11

2G RF Optimization

Drop Call Analysis

Dropped Call Analysis


How

drive tests

to measure

repeated call setups (preferred)


continuous calls

OMC measurements

Reasons

for dropped calls

lack of coverage
interference problems
handover problems
lack of synchronisation in network
problems with other parts of the network

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Overview cont.

TCH Drop

Excessive Timing Advance


Low Signal Strength
Bad Quality
Sudden Loss
Other reason

TxNDROP (x=F for full rate, x=H for half rate)

total number of dropped TCH connections


incremented when theres abnormally terminated connections

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Dropped Call - Low Signal Strength

Dropped calls due to low signal strength can occur in


downlink (DL), uplink (UL) or bothlink (BL)

Reasons :
Isolated site
Antenna/Feeders too much downtilt, incorrect
orientation, hidden antenna, faulty antenna/feeders
Output power incorrect power settings
BSC Exchange property improper LOWSSUL/DL
settings
Unforseen subscriber behaviour use MS in lifts, car park
Missing NREL
Obstacles building, hills, tunnel etc.
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Low SS troubleshooting

Check power settings (BSPWRB, BSPWRT),


power balance
Check neighbour relations
i.

ii.
iii.

use site position on map and manually determine


neighbour
find suitable neighbour
consistency check to find missing relations

BTS error log check for any hardware faults


indicating high VSWR
Perform drivetest

Check for missing neighbours, swapped feeders,


probable obstacles

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Low SS troubleshooting cont.


LOWSSUL

& LOWSSDL settings

The settings of LOWSSUL/DL influences the counter


step
If LOWSSDL & LOWSSUL have same value, than
STS would probably indicate most of the low SS drop
is on the UL.
Recommend to have LOWSSDL > LOWSSUL
because MS&BTS sensitivity different and SS on
UL&DL are different

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Dropped Call Bad Quality


Dropped

calls due to bad quality can occur in


downlink (DL), uplink (UL) or bothlink (BL)

Reasons :
Frequency plan adjacent and co-channel interference
No dominant server low SS
Missing NREL MS is not able to connect to strongest
server
Hardware problems antennas, feeders, connectors
Environment near open water
External other networks, microwave links, illegal
transmitters
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Bad Quality troubleshooting cont.

Perform drivetest

can locate interferer by halting the effected cell &


performing freq. scanning to locate the interfering cell.
can also use spectrum analyser
check for missing NREL

QLIMUL & QLIMDL ensure correct settings.


Recommended QLIMUL/DL = 55 for hopping and
QLIMUL/DL = 45 for non-hopping
Reduce interference if cant change freq, then
consider downtilt/power down interferer
Use features IHO,DTX, Frequency hopping,
MS/BTS Power Control

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Dropped Call Sudden Loss


Valid

when none of the first 3 types of


droppped calls (i.e. excessive TA, low SS,
BQ) are indicated and locating procedure
indicates missing measurement results from
MS

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Sudden Loss Probable Reason


Environment sudden drop in SS, such as when
subscribers enter into building, lift, tunnel etc.
Battery MS battery finishes during conversation, or
battery being pulled out
BTS/MS hardware fault
Transmission fault synchronization/ABIS link fault
Interference very sudden and severe occurrence of
interference or bad quality

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21

Sudden Loss troubleshooting

RLINKT

& RLINKUP check is correct settings.


Consider increasing for certain scenarios
Check synchronization and link faults
Check BTS error log
Check if its related to human behaviour

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22

Dropped Call Other reasons


TCH

drops due to other reason than low SS, bad quality,


excessive TA and sudden loss.
Reasons :

No specific counters reasons for it occuring are subjective


Hardware faults BTS or MS
Transmission/link problems
Maintainence work affecting network service
Interference severe interference problems

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Other reasons - troubleshooting

Check

BTS error log any HW faults


Check with O&M transmission problems,
maintainence work during the effected time
period
Check if indicating uplink interference in cell
Check object type help find faulty devices

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2G RF Optimization

Call Setup Analysis

MAXRETR
Slotted

ALOHA mechanism: Several users


may attempt to access channel
simultaneously

in case of collision new attempts are made


MAXRETR: Maximum no. of retries allowed
H (1 )
R AC
(2)
H
C
RA
H
AGC

MS

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RACH

BTS

E.g: MAXRETR = 2
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Call Setup Failure Analysis


Low Signal Strength
-Possible
reasons with ranking
Interference
High

Congestion on SDCCH
High Congestion on TCH
Transmission Fault
Faulty TRU/Hardware
Central Processor Overload
Software File Congestion
Cell is not defined in MSC.
kris.sujatmoko@gmail.com

Page - 27

Call Setup Failure Analysis


Low signal strength Signal strength analysis.
- Possible solutions
Interference

Interference analysis.
High Congestion on SDCCH:
Define

more SDCCHs.
Activate adaptive configuration of logical channel
feature and immediate assignment to TCH.
High

Congestion on TCH:

Add

capacity/Tune coverage array.


Activate assignment to worse cell.
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Page - 28

Failed Call Setup (Blocked Call)


Example
Multiple Channel Requests.
Successful Random Access after the
third try.
Congestion in SDCCH.

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Page - 29

2G RF Optimization

Handover Analysis

Handover Performance Analysis

When moving from one cell to another (neighbour cells) handovers


are necessary
Too many neighbours
Inaccurate handover
decision
Handover Failure &
Dropped Call

SIEMENS AG
MON MAR15 15:18:41
SCALE 1:2500
EqualPowerBoundary
Mutual Neighbour
Non-Mutual Neighbour
Missing Neighbour
Too many Neighbours

Missing Neighbour
definition
Handover Failure
Dropped Call

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Handover Parameters
Objectives:

mobile should be connected


to the bestcell
avoid unnecessary
handovers

Consequence

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good speech quality


less dropped calls

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Consequence of Missing Neighbours


Defined neighbours
Server
Missing neighbour
Interferer

f1
f1

Missing neighbour cells

Cell dragging

Congestion

Cell dragging

Poor RxQual

Poor RxLev

Interference

Exceeded distance

Poor PBGT

Dropped Calls

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33

Consequence of Many Neighbour Definitions


Only

about 100 measurement samples are


possible during one measurement period for
all defined neighbour cells
Number of BCCH carriers
In BCCH Allocation
32
16
10
8
:

Number of samples per


Carrier in SACCH multiframe
3-4
6-7
10-11
12-13
:
(Rec. GSM 0508)

Too many neighbour cells


Inaccurate signal level measurement
False handover decisions

Problem:
Sites with too
large coverage
area

Dropped Calls
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Handover Parameters
Fine-tuning

Moving cell boundaries in order to

of handover parameters

Enhance success rate for critical handovers


Minimise local interference at the cell edge
Traffic load sharing between cells

Compared to other opimisation measures


improvement potential is limited
Affected by

Measurement averaging
Power control parameters

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Neighbours
should in general
be mutual

35

Handover Criteria
Handover

Region (due to quality and level)

Rx_Qual

L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH

7
Intercell HO
due to quality

Intracell HO
due to Quality

L_Rx_Qual_XX_H
Intercell HO
due to level

0
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L_Rx_Lev_XX_H

No handover
action due to
quality or level

63

Rx_Lev
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Handover Decision
Handover
HandoverTypes
Types
Intercell
IntercellHO
HO
due
dueto
toQuality
Quality

Decision
DecisionCriteria
Criteria
1.
1.RXQUAL_XX
RXQUAL_XX>>L_RXQUAL_XX_H
L_RXQUAL_XX_H
2.
2.RXLEV_XX
RXLEV_XX<<L_RXLEV_XX_IH
L_RXLEV_XX_IH
3.
3.XX_TXPWR
XX_TXPWR==Min
Min(XX_TXPWR_Max,P)
(XX_TXPWR_Max,P)
HO
1.
HOdue
dueto
toLevel
Level
1.RXLEV_XX
RXLEV_XX>>L_RXLEV_XX_H
L_RXLEV_XX_H
2.
2.XX_TXPWR
XX_TXPWR==Min(XX_TXPWR_Max,P)
Min(XX_TXPWR_Max,P)
HO
HOdue
dueto
toDistance
Distance 1.
1.MS_BS_DIST
MS_BS_DIST>>MS_Range_Max
MS_Range_Max
HO
1.
HOdue
dueto
to
1.RXLEV_NCELL(n)
RXLEV_NCELL(n)>>RXLEV_MIN(n)
RXLEV_MIN(n)
Power
++Max
PowerBudget
Budget
Max(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P)
(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P)
2.
2.PBGT(n)
PBGT(n)>>HO_MARGIN(n)
HO_MARGIN(n)
Intracell
1.
IntracellHO
HO
1.RXQUAL_XX
RXQUAL_XX>>L_RXQUAL_XX_H
L_RXQUAL_XX_H
due
2.
dueto
toQuality
Quality
2.RXLEV_XX
RXLEV_XX>>L_RXLEV_XX_IH
L_RXLEV_XX_IH

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37

Intracell Handover
Check

for simultaneous occurrence of:

Poor quality (high Rx_Qual)


Sufficient signal level

L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH
Rx_Qual
L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH
Intracell HO
due to Quality

L_Rx_Qual_XX_H

L_Rx_Lev_XX_H

Rx_Lev
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Level Handovers
Adjacent

cell not stronger than current cell +


HO margin
Serving cell has insufficient coverage
emergency handover to cell with better
coverage
Rx_Lev

Server

HOMARGIN

HO_Threshold_Lev

neighbour
MinHOReqInt

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Driven route
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Handover Case
INPUT
Large area DT

Post-Processing

Specific area DT

Analysis

Look for:

Repeated handover (Ping Pong)


Repeated Intra-cell handover
Handover failure,
Unrealistic handover
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Page - 40

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


- Examples

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Page - 41

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


Merry-go-round Handover, Offset > Hysterisis

- Possible Reason 1

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Page - 42

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


Offset

only in one direction e.g A-B for Inter


BSC relationReason 2
Possible
BSC 1

BSC

CELL A

A -> B OFFSET = -5dB


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BSC

BSC 2

CELL B

No B -> A OFFSET
Page - 43

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


No

dominant server
Locating penalty settings
Other Possible Reasons
Too small hysterisis setting
No dominant Server

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Page - 44

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


Possible Solutions
Antenna direction
Antenna Tilts
Plan for new site
Change Locating Parameter e.g.
KHYST or LHYST

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Page - 45

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong)


Possible Solution
Change Parameter, KHYST or LHYST

Hysterisis

CELL A

CELL B
Handover
From A to B

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Page - 46

Handover Case
Handover Reversion

Check layer 3 message


Handover command BSC correct?
Check reason for handover SS, RXQUAL
Target cell?
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Page - 47

Handover Reversion
Common Reason
Duplicates of BSIC BCCH combinations in neighboring list

BSC

Handover command?
610_12

606_33
610_31

610_31

Serving cell

Neighbor cell 2

Neighbor cell 1
608_32
608_32

Road
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Page - 48

Handover Reversion
Other Reasons
Uplink interference in target cell
Downlink interference at MS
Solutions
Interference Investigation
Statistics
Scanning

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Page - 49

Handover Case
Repeated Intra-cell Handover
Possible Reasons
Wrong intra-cell handover settings
External Uplink Interference
Possible Solutions
Consider to change parameters:
SSOFFSETUL, SSOFFSETDL
QOFFSETUL, QOFFSETDL
A wrong setting of parameters will cause unnecessary IHO
Turn off Intra-cell Handover?
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Page - 50

Handover Case
Unrealistic Handover

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Page - 51

Unrealistic Handover
Reason & Solution
Possible Reasons
Wrong locating settings, in Serving or Target cell
Note: Could be on purpose e.g. Dual Band network with HCS

Solution
Fix locating settings e.g. MSRXSUFF, BSRXSUFF

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Page - 52

2G RF Optimization

Speech Quality Analisys

Speech Quality Analysis

Parameters

RxQual
Frame Erasure Rate (FER)
Speech Quality Index (SQI)

Causes of interference

Measurements

Drive test

co-channel interference
adjacent channel interference
intermodulation

multipath interference

preferably continuous call

OMC statistics

Cause for poor quality

mainly on one link only

low signal strength (coverage


related
interference
low signal strength and
interference

Interfering cell of
base station
within GSM network

Base station
within GSM
Network

Downlink Interference Measurement


Typical

requirement

speech: RxQual 4
data: RxQual 3
BER %
0.0 - 0.2
0.2 - 0.4
0.4 - 0.8
0.8 - 1.6
1.6 - 3.2
3.2 - 6.4
6.4 - 12.8
> 12.8

RxQual
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

With frequency hopping:


RxQual not a valid parameter
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55

Frequency Changes

Sometimes necessary to minimise interference


As network reaches capacity limit this becomes difficult

Can be done at either interfering cell or victim cell

Choice: Whichever happens to be easier to change

Existing plan may be entered into planning tool as


constraints

Other frequencies may be affected by the change

search for optimum frequency allocation for a given cell

At a certain point the whole network e.g. in a city may


have to be re-planned

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56

Frequency Changes
BCCH/TCH

swapping

Method sometimes used: Alternate between


clusters

BCCH: 794
TCH:797

BCCH: 794

before

BCCH: 797
TCH:794

BCCH: 794

after

Effectiveness depends on TCH traffic load


BCCH / TCH sub-bands are mixed
Could be used as a temporary measure

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while traffic load is low

57

BSIC Optimisation
Base

Station Identity Codes

Used by the MS to distinguish between cells


using the same frequency

Co-Channel cells must have different


BSICs

f9

f9

f9

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58

Location Area Codes

Purpose

identify location area


in incoming call is paged to all BTSs within LA

Large location area

advantage: less location updates (reduced SDCCH


load)
disadvantage: more paging traffic

Boundaries should not cross high traffic areas


Cell reselection across LA boundaries

Parameter Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis (typ. 4 dB) used


to avoid unnecessary signalling due to ping-pong cell
reselections

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59

Power Control
RXQUAL

Power Increase
(bad quality)
L_RXQUAL_XX_P
Power Decrease
(Good Level)

Power Increase
(bad level)
L_RXQUAL_XX_P

Power Decrease
(good quality)
L_RXLEV_XX_P

U_RXLEV_XX_P

RXLEV

2*POW_RED_STEP_SIZE

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60

Interference Case
TEMS
Logfiles

INPUT
Large area DT

Post-Processing

Specific area DT

Analysis

Identify areas with Rxqual > 5


Identify source using Map and STS
New drive test around problem area?

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Page - 61

Types of Interference

Co - Channel interference
Adjacent Interference

CASE 1

BCCH 600
BCCH 595

CASE 2

High
site

BCCH 590
BCCH 590
BCCH 590
BCCH 590

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Page - 62

Interference Case
Possible Reasons
Poor frequency plan
No dominant cell --> low C/I ---> increased Rxqual
Frequency Hopping is off
External interference e.g. jammer

Example of high Rxqual due


to low Signal Strength

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Page - 63

Interference Case
Possible solutions

Enable Frequency Hopping or add frequencies to Hopping


group.

Enable BTS Power Control, MS power control and make it


less aggressive.

Change frequency of interferer or interfered cell:

Possible to find new frequency by using TEMS Scanning.

Down tilt or change antenna of interferer.

Redo frequency plan.

Add new site.

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Page - 64

2G RF Optimization

Cell Parameter Optim

Cell Parameter Optimisation


Default

Standard setting suitable for most cases


Starting point for possible optimisation, however

parameter sets:

more relevant after other optimisation activities

Different parameter standards may be used for

different area types


BTS types
etc.

Danger

many parameters easy to lose overview

inconsistencies
deterioration of quality

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