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Heart Metaphors in

Thai Language
RaAM7
Thammasat University
May 2008
Chatchawadee Saralamba

Themes of Talk
1.
2.

3.
4.

Thai Heart vs. English Heart


Identifying Metaphorical
meanings of Thai Heart /jai/.
Concepts of HEART.
Conclusions.

1. Thai Heart vs. English


Thai HEART = /jai/ = heart + mind
English = 1. heart
2. mind

The Metaphorical
meanings of /jai/

1.

2.

Feelings: positive, neutral,


negative.
Nature / Personality: positive,
neutral, negative .

Feelings: Positive
views/ways

aggregation into
semanticallyconnected groups
systematic
metaphors

analysis of
discourse action,
discourse topics
and themes

Starting
Points:
Pat

at the beginning
as a republican
I felt obliged
as a republican
to sit down and talk about that
and against the backdrop of the political reasons
given a platform
for a republican message
that had been censored for decades
so
when offered an opportunity
to sit down
and talk about
what motivated you
then you should
avail of that
so thats the way I walked into it

Identifying linguistic
metaphor

The central identifying feature of a


linguistic metaphor is the use of a lexical
item (the Vehicle term) that has another
meaning which is potentially
incongruous with its meaning in context.
The other meaning of the Vehicle can be
used to make sense of its use in the
discourse context.
The Vehicle term can be a single word raising or a phrase
bring together.

but as I said
when you meet somebody

Starting
Points:

whos so open
to understanding your perspective
then youre obliged to somehow reciprocate

in er,
the first few days after the bomb

Starting
Points:
Jo

just thinking
if only I could bring something positive
out of this
and feeling very strongly
that my father was killed
because he was part of a conflict
and it was a conflict which I was
suddenly emotionally involved in

and I realised
I wanted to hear Pats story
because I believe that
if anyone opens up and shares their story
ehm

Starting
Points

its very hard to hate


and my idea of Pat
was of someone
without much humanity
and I wanted to meet him
and hear his story
and discover his humanity
later on also came the idea that I wanted him
to hear my story

Systematic Metaphors
Systematic metaphors are connected sets of
linguistic metaphors used around a single
Topic across a discourse event.
.

the first conciliation meeting is a stage on


a journey
.. there's been a long long .. 16 years of [getting to this point].
.. the end of that journey,
would be,
.. sitting down and,
... talking to the people who did it.

More
examples

coming to terms with responsibility is a journe


something I have to go through.
... and how you ... come to terms with that,
coming to terms with responsibility is physical
injury
it's such a painful thing to carry.
it pains me to say that to you.

Grouping linguistic
metaphors into systematic
list
Vehicles
sets

move them around into connected


groupings
construct a label for each grouping
sort each group by connected Topics
these are systematic metaphors
not conceptual metaphors

Metaphor Vehicles and


Linguistic metaphors were grouped by Vehicle domains:
Topics

Inside these Vehicle groupings, metaphors were connected


by shared Topics.

Major systematic metaphors


used to frame reconciliation
RECONCILIATION IS A JOURNEY

bring something positive out of this

UNDERSTANDING THE OTHER REQUIRES CONNECTION

I was crying in a desert

RECONCILIATION INVOLVES CHANGING A DISTORTED


IMAGE OF THE OTHER

its never the whole picture

RECONCILIATION HAPPENS THROUGH LISTENING TO


THE OTHERS STORY

I wanted to hear his story

Understanding the Other


requires connection

building bridges
breaking down barriers
being open

building bridges
Pat ... (1.0) in the er -the journey,
...(1.0) coming ... to a bridge,/
... you [know].
Jo[hmh]
Pat ... with two ends,
Pat all those bridges are there to be built

connection and
separation
Jo
.. and it felt like my heart was broken,

Pat
Jo

... through the conflict.


...(1.0) and,
... the suffering was .. my suffering.
I couldn't separate it.
I couldn't be detached anymore.
hmh
.. and that -...(1.0) that um,
.. that pain,
that loss,
... was shared by,
.. by everyone.

The removal of barriers


allows connection
Jo <X where X> victims of all sides have been meeting,
.. and -er,
... (1.0) that is just about,
... er,
.. br- breaking down barriers,
sharing stories,
and -Pat
hmh
Jo ... and through .. experiencing each other's stories,
Pat
hmh
Jo ... there's a real feeling of,
...
closeness and
humanity of everyone,

Reconciliation happens
through listening to the
Others
story
Pat but you are also,
and I find you very open.
... to my story.
where I -.. er,
... I feel there is more to me than just a perpetrator.
...(1.0) and er,
...(1.0) I suppose,
...(1.0) what we're doing here.
... is,
.. exchanging our stories.

The figurative range of


story
Pat six killed -people killed in one night.
...
and there are so many other stories
that.
Pat

like

be open to the other persons story

Jo you offer me the story


pain of your war

The flexibility of story


Jo.. as a daughter of a conservative MP,
I .. can sort of take responsibility for
the -...(1.0) what the government .. didn't
do.
and,
.. the not listening,
not hearing [their story].

Local patterns of metaphor


use

Challenge the others metaphor.

Appropriate the others metaphor Vehicle for


own topic.

my healing

Adapt the others metaphor.

a bridge with two ends

the struggle a struggle

Use contrast metaphor to explore


alternatives.

if my heart was closed

How does metaphor


contribute to the process of
reconciliation?

It offers ways to explore alternatives to


violence and revenge.
It allows victim and perpetrator to explain
their feelings to the Other, and to feel
empathy for the Other.
It allows speakers to control and adjust
the affective climate of the talk.
Small acts of reconciliation e.g. allowing
appropriation of metaphor, contribute to
the large process.

References
Cameron, L. (2007). Patterns of metaphor use in
reconciliation talk. Discourse and Society. 18(2), 197222.
Metaphor analysis website:
http://creet.open.ac.uk/projects/metaphor-analysis/inde
x.cfm