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Applied Mechanics

MIME 2101N
Introduction + Course
Planning
Dr. C. Subramanian
Lecturer
Mechanical Section
Engineering Department
Shinas College of Technology

Mechanics is all about


Mechanics is a physical science
which deals with bodies at rest or
motion under the action of forces.

Mechanical
Dr .C .Subramanian

Bio Mechanics
Aerospace

Aerodynamics
Applied

Mechanics I

APPLIED MECHANICS
This class is fundamental to your
success
in
any
course
which
involves solids or fluids. I expect to
help you be successful in this class
and for you to leave this class well
prepared to succeed in dynamics
and strength of materials and
subsequently
machine
design,
Prerequisites
structural analysis.
Vectors, calculus dont worry it is not so
difficult
Dr .C .Subramanian

Applied Mechanics I

Conduct of the Course


Two Theory hours per week and two
Practical hours per week including lectures
and tutorial sessions.
Solve lots of problems
There will be assignments, 4 quizzes (Best
Two) one mid term exams and a final
examination. There will be a great deal of
hands on and observed problem solving in
the class. History has shown Regular
attendance is necessary to be successful in
the class. Quizzes will be short (12 minutes)
at the end of class.
Dr .C .Subramanian

Applied Mechanics I

Objectives

Outcomes

This course
should enable
the student to

A student who satisfactorily complete the


course should be able to:

1.Understand the
laws and the
principles that govern
static.
2. Perceive the basic
concept in the field
of this subject.
3. Model and analyze
static engineering
problems.
4. Lay the ground for
various courses in
engineering.

1. Recognize common equilibrium problems.


2. Grasp the condition for transitional and rotational equilibrium and form
the proper equation of equilibrium
3. Use the pictorial representation of equilibrium situation in terms of free
-body diagram.
4. Realize the difference between equilibrium force and the resultant force.
5. Distinguish between the various forces and stresses arising in a
problem such as the internal, external, tensile, compressive, direct , shear
and other loading conditions, etc.
6. Define centroid, center of gravity and center of mass of a rigid body
and appreciate their location and significances.
7. Define moment of inertia of mass and area and grasping methods of
computing each about any axis.
8. Handle various structural problems and utilizing sections and joint
methods.
9. Distinguish between various types of friction.
10. Analyze beams in terms of shearing forces and bending moment
under various boundary conditions.
11. Carry out laboratory experiment to verify the conditions of equilibrium
of forces, analyze beams, determine coefficient of static and kinetic
friction and other topics related to the statics of bodies, frames, etc

Dr .C .Subramanian

Applied Mechanics I

Assessment Plan
MARKS DISTRIBUTION FOR ENGINEERING COURSES
THEORY + PRACTICAL BASED COURSES// ASSESSMENT METHOD

Type of Course

Course work

Midterm
Exam
20T marks
(20%)

Final Exam

Pure theoretical
(3T)

30T marks
(30%)

Pure practical
(6P)

30P marks
(30%)

Mixed (2T+2P)

15T+15P marks
(30%)

20T marks
(20%)

35T+ 15P# marks


(35%) + (15%)

Mixed (1T+4P)

10T+20P
(30%)

5T+15P
(20%)

15T+35P
(50%)

50T marks
(50%)
50P+ 20P* marks
(50% )+ (20%)

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Type of Assessment

Marks (%)

Course work

Quizzes

Structured assignments
Technical assignments

10 marks

15T+15P marks (30%)


15 T

05 marks

(Technical reports)

15 marks

15P

Mid- Term Examination

20 marks

20T marks (20%)

Final Examination

Theory exam

35 marks

35T+ 15P# marks (50%)


35 T

#Continuous assessment (Practical)

A minimum of 5 practical assessments

15 P#

10 marks

Criteria
(Individual performance,
team work, time frame,
attendance)
Grand Total

05 marks
100%

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

What is Mechanics?
Mechanics is a physical science
which deals with bodies at rest or
motion under the action of forces.
Mechanics is an
applied science
Categories of Mechanics:

Rigid bodies- Statics or Dynamics


Continuum
Deformable bodies
hypothesis
Fluids
Dr .C .Subramanian

Applied Mechanics I

What is rigid body?


Rigid Bodies: Rigid bodies are those which do not deform under the
action of applied forces
F1

F4
F2

F3

Deformable Bodies: Deformable bodies are those which deform


under the action of applied forces.
What is continuum hypothesis?
Basic assumption in solving mechanics problem
Continuum mechanics no voids are present material is
continuous

Dr .C .Subramanian

Applied Mechanics I

Introduction to
Mechanics
Effect of forces on objects
either at rest or in motion Engineering Mechanics
Engineering Mechanics

Rigid Bodies

Statics
(Body is at rest)

Dynamics
(Body is in motion)

Kinematics
Dr.C.Subramanian

Force tends to move the


Effect of
body
F forces

Force tends to
rotate the
Mechanics of Fluids
body

Mechanics of Solids

Deformable Bodies

Kinetics

Classification of
study of Engineering
Applied Mechanics I

Objective coverage
1.Understand the laws and the
principles that govern static.
2. Perceive the basic concept in
the field of this subject

Out come coverage


1. Recognize common equilibrium problems.
2. Grasp the condition for transitional and rotational equilibrium
and form the proper equation of equilibrium
3. Use the pictorial representation of equilibrium situation in
terms of free -body diagram.
4. Realize the difference between equilibrium force and the
resultant force.
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Vector Approach for solving


Scalar and Vector
Quantities
Problems
Scalar Quantities : Physical quantity which defined only by magnitude. Scalar
quantities are volume, density, speed, energy, mass, time and work.
For example: Volume of the bottle is 1 litre
Mass of the car is 1700kg.
Vector Quantities: These are defined by both magnitude and direction. Vector
quantities are displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, moment and momentum.
A vector may be represented by a straight line, the length of line being
directly proportional to the magnitude of the quantity and the direction of
the line being in the same direction as the line of action of the quantity.
An arrow is used to denote the sense of the vector, that is, for a
horizontal vector,
say, whether it acts from left to right or vice-versa.
Force: Action of one body on another; characterized by
its point of application, magnitude, line of action, and
sense
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Fundamental Principles of Mechanics


Newtons First Law: If the resultant force on a
particle is zero, the particle will remain at rest or
continue to move in a straight line.
Importance of first law
Deals with equilibrium of particle or body
Involved mostly in solving static problems

Illustrate with video

Particle.

A particle has a mass but the size can


be neglected during analysis .
Idealization as a
Dr.C.Subramanian
particle
Applied Mechanics I

Newtons Second Law: A particle will have


an acceleration proportional
to a nonzero

resultant applied force.


F ma

Importance of second law

Involved mostly in solving dynamic


problems
Importance of mass was recognized

Newtons Third Law: The forces of action and


reaction between two particles have the same
magnitude and line of action with opposite
Importance of Third law
sense.
Involved mostly in solving static problems
Basis for drawing the free body diagram indicating the action
and reaction

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Parallelogram Law of Addition


It states that if two vectors (Say P and
Q) acting at a point to be represented in
magnitude and direction by the two
adjacent sides of parallelogram, then
their
resultant
is
represented
in
magnitude and direction by the diagonal
of the parallelogram at that point.

R=P+Q

Law of Cosine
Triangle rule for vector addition

R=P+Q

Let us consider a triangle ABC with


sides a, b, & c, and included angles ,
, & where , , & 90
a2 = b2 +c2 2bc cos .

b2 = c2 +a2 2ca cos


c2 = a2 +b2 2ab cos .
Law of Sine

a b c
sin Sin Sin

b
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

TYPES OF FORCE SYSTEM


Force system

Coplanar Force System

Coplanar
Collinear
Force
System

Coplanar
Concurrent
Force System

Non-Coplanar Force System

Coplanar NonConcurrent
Force System

Coplanar Like
Parallel Force
System

Non-Coplanar
Concurrent Force
System

Coplanar
Parallel Force
System

Coplanar Unlike
Parallel Force System

Non-Coplanar
Parallel Force
System

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Non-Coplanar Non
Concurrent Non
Parallel Force System

Coplanar Collinear Force System


Non-Coplanar concurrent Force System

Coplanar Collinear Force System

The system in which the forces,


whose lines of action lie on the
same line and in the same plane
is called coplanar collinear force
system

The system in which


the forces meet at one
point and lie in a
different plane is called
coplanar
concurrent
force system

Coplanar Concurrent Force System


Non-Coplanar concurrent Force System

The system in which the forces meet at one point and


lie in the same plane is called coplanar concurrent
force system. The concurrent forces may or may notCoplanar Concurrent Force System
Dr.C.Subramanian
be collinear.
Applied Mechanics I

Problem 1

The two forces act on a bolt at A. Determine


their resultant.
Graphical Solution

R 98 N 35
A triangle is drawn with P and Q headto-tail and to scale. The magnitude and
direction of the resultant or of the third
side of the triangle are measured.

R 98 N 35
A parallelogram with sides equal to P
and
Q is drawn to scale. The
magnitude and direction of the resultant
or of the diagonal to the parallelogram
are measured
Dr.C.Subramanian

Applied Mechanics I

Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.


Law of Cosines,
R 2 P 2 Q 2 2 PQ cos B

40 N 2 60 N 2 2 40 N 60 N cos155

R 97.73N
Law of Sines
Q
R

sin A sin B
sin A sin B

Q
R

sin 155
A 15.04
20 A

35.04
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

60 N
97.73N

Problem 2

A barge is pulled by two tugboats. If the resultant of


the forces exerted by the tugboats is 5000 N directed
along the axis of the barge, determine
The tension in each of the ropes for = 45o
Graphical solution - Parallelogram Rule with known
resultant direction and magnitude, known directions
for sides.

T1 3700 N T2 2600 N
Trigonometric solution - Triangle Rule with Law of Sines
T1
T2
5000 N

sin 45 sin 30 sin 105


T1 3660 N T2 2590 N
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Tutorial
Problem 1

Using the triangle rule and the Law of


Cosines,
Have: = 180 45
= 135
Then:
R2 = 900 2 + 600 2 2 (900) (600) cos 135
or R = 1390.57 N
Using the Law of Sines,
600 /sin =
1390.57/sin135
or = 17.7642
and = 90
17.7642
= 72.236
Three problems will be given for tutorial class separately
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Rectangular Components of a Force: Unit Vectors


May resolve a force vector into perpendicular
components so that the resulting parallelogram is a
rectangle. Fx and Fy are referred to as rectangular
vector components and

F Fx Fy

Define perpendicular unit vectors i and j which are


parallel to the x and y axes.
Vector components may be expressed as products of
the unit vectors with the scalar magnitudes of the
vector components.

F Fx i F y j

Fx and Fy are referred to as the scalar components of F

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Addition of Forces by Summing Components


Wish to find the resultant of 3 or more
concurrent forces,

R PQ S
Resolve each force into rectangular components

R x i R y j Px i Py j Q x i Q y j S x i S y j

Px Q x S x i Py Q y S y j

The scalar components of the resultant are


equal to the sum of the corresponding scalar
components of the given forces.
R y Py Q y S y
R x Px Q x S x
Fx
Fy

Dr.C.Subramanian

To find the resultant magnitude and direction,


2
2
1 R y
R Rx R y
tan
Rx
Applied Mechanics I

Problem 3

SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular
components.
Determine the components of the
resultant by adding the corresponding
force components.
Four forces act on bolt A as shown.
Determine the resultant of the force
on the bolt.

Calculate the magnitude and direction


of the resultant.

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

SOLUTION:
Resolve each force into rectangular
components.
force mag
x comp
y comp

F1 150
129.9
75.0

F2
80
27.4
75.2

F3 110
0
110 .0

F4 100
96.6
25.9
R x 199.1 R y 14.3
Determine the components of the resultant by
adding the corresponding force components.

Tutorial
Problem
2 procedure and
Follow
the same
solve problem 1 in the class
Dr.C.Subramanian

Calculate the magnitude and direction.


R 199.12 14.32
14.3 N
tan
199.1 N
Applied Mechanics I

R 199.6 N

4.1

Tutorial
Problem 3

Knowing that = 65, determine the


resultant of the
three forces shown
Start with the tail and end with a head

Selecting the x axis along aa, we write


Rx = Fx = 300 N + (400 N)cos + (600 N)sin
(1)
Ry 41
= Fy = (400 N)sin (600 N)cos
Beer and Johnston Ex. Pbm
(2)on do it use the calculators properly
Come
Substitute = 65, Come on do it use the calculators
properly

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Equilibrium of a Particle
When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is zero, the particle is
in equilibrium.
Newtons First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero, the particle will
remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.

Particle acted upon by


two forces:
- equal magnitude
- same line of action
- opposite sense
Dr.C.Subramanian

Particle acted upon by three or more forces:


- graphical solution yields a closed polygon
- algebraic solution

R F 0

Fx 0
Applied Mechanics I

Fy 0

Free-Body Diagrams

Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing only


the forces on the selected particle.
Space Diagram: A sketch showing the physical
conditions of the problem.

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Conditions of Equilibrium (or) Equations of Equilibrium of


particle
Equilibrium equations are written as
Fx = 0
Fy = 0
1.The algebraic sum of the magnitudes of the vertical components of
all the forces acting on the body is zero.
2.The algebraic sum of the magnitudes of the horizontal components
of all the forces acting on the body is zero.

Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Proble
m4
Two cables tied together at C are loaded as
shown. Knowing that W = 190 N, determine
the tension
(a) in cable AC, (b) in cable BC.

Free-Body Diagram at C
I will do the problem in the class

(a) TAC =
169.6 N
Dr.C.Subramanian
(b) TBC = 265

Applied Mechanics I

Tutorial
Problem 5

Two traffic signals are


temporarily suspended from a
cable as shown. Knowing that
the signal at B weighs 300 N,
determine the weight of the
signal at C.
I will do the problem along with you.
come on attempt it
Free-Body Diagram at C

Beer and Johnston Ex. Pbm 48

Free-Body Diagram at B

WC = 97.7 N
TBC = 565.34 N
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I

Lami's Theorem
Only applicable
to Three coplanar, concurrent and non-collinear forces
When an object is in static equilibrium,
According to the theorem
where A, B and C are the magnitudes of three coplanar, concurrent and noncollinear forces, which keep the object in static equilibrium, and , and are
the angles directly opposite to the forces A, B and C respectively.
Example :

Free-Body Diagram

TAB
TAc
736 N

sin 120 sin 140


sin 100
Dr.C.Subramanian
Applied Mechanics I