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Introduction into Mobile Core

Network

WebEx Sunday Session


24 March 2013

About this presentation

Goal
Introduction into 2G/3G and 4G core
network element in Telco technology,
particular for non-Telco person.
Overview of call establishment
process
Experience sharing of 4G EPC project
delivery from existing Mobile Network
Operator.

What is not covered here


Wireless and radio related part.
Detail and deep dive of each
network element.
Detail procedure for call
establishment.

Disclaimer

All material presented here is solely for non-profit


educational purpose.

Node and Interface in Telco


What is a Node ?
Node is a network component that is capable of receiving,
sending or forwarding electronic information over the
designated communication link. For example BSC, RNC,
SGSN, MSC, HLR.
Known as Network Element too..

What is an Interface ?
In telecommunication, an interface is a logical link
connection or a reference point, between two components
in telecommunication infrastructure, for example, Gn
interface is a reference point between SGSN and a GGSN.
However, Telecommunication also use term interface as
a device or program of that enabling a communication
between user and a computing device.

2G and 3G Network Architecture


Circuit Core Domain
MSS/VL
R

N
c

MSS/VL
R

MS
BT
S

MGW
Abi
s

BSC

A
IuC
S

RNC
MS

Mc

Mc

Iub

Node
B

Gb

IuP
S

SM
SC

HL
R

PCR
F

N
b

MGW

RADIU
S

DN
S

Charging
Centre
NMS / OSS

DHC
P

Service & subscriber


management
Gz/Gs/Gr/Gf/
Gd

SGSN

Packet Data Network


e..g Internet

Gx/Gz
Gn

GGSN

Packet Core Domain


Control plane
User plane

PST
N
Othe
r
PLM
N

Gi

Acronym used in Telco..


MS

Mobile Subscriber

A mobile phone with SIM card

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

Air interface toward MS in 2G

BSC

Base Station Controller

Controlling BTS

NodeB

n/a

Air interface toward MS in 3G

RNC

Radio Network Controller

Controlling NodeB

MSS

Mobile Switching Server

Mobility Management for CS


Domain

VLR

Visitor Location Register

Manage temporary subscriber


information within an MSS

HLR

Home Location Register

Manage permanent subscriber


Database

MGW

Media Gateway

Manage user plane traffic

SGSN

Support GPRS Service Node

Mobility Management for PS


Domain

GGSN

Gateway GPRS Service Node

Session Management , IP
address allocation, QoS
enforcement, Routing toward
internet.

Circuit Switching vs. Packet


Switching
Circuit Switching
Mostly used in the voice call.
Whenever a call is being made, a dedicated
logical link needs to be established.
Network resource is allocated and reserved
for the subscriber for entire duration of the
call.

Packet Switching
Mostly used in the Packet Data
Connection.. . e.g. internet browsing
Whenever an MS sends or receives
data, data is organized into packet and
each packet has source / destination ID.

Signaling Plane vs. User Plane


User Plane is the user traffic that
contain the conversation between 2
or more user peers.
Carried over the core network as a bearer
Example. Voice call or Browsing data traffic through GPRS

Control Plane is signaling


communication used to control the
bearer traffic.
Involving of sending and receiving messages between 2 nodes.
Example. Communication between SGSN and HLR.

A Simplified 2G/3G PS Call Flow


Referenc
(1/3)
e:
1

Attach
request..

TS
23.060
TS
24.008
TS
29.060

Herewith the
info

HL
R

MS

Gn
DNS

BTS /
Nodeb
Abis /
Iub
I am attached
to the network
and want to
browse, by
activating PDP
context

BSC
RNC

Packet Data Network


e..g Internet

Get info for this


subscriber

Gb
IuPS

SGSN

Attach
accepted..

Gn

GGSN

Internet
DNS

Note :
All procedures here are simplified for
overview only. Reader should refer to above
reference for detail procedures.

A Simplified 2G/3G PS Call Flow


Referenc
(2/3)
e:
Herewith the IP address
of GGSN

TS
23.060
TS
24.008
TS
29.060

HL
R

MS

Gn
DNS

BTS /
Nodeb

I am attached
to the network
and want to
browse , by
activating PDP
context

Abis Iub

BSC
RNC

Packet Data Network


e..g Internet

Gb
-IuPS

SGSN

1
1
PDP context activation
accepted, now browse to
www.google.com.au

Gn

GGSN

6
PDP context activation received
from MS,
What is the IP address of the
GGSN that serving this APN ? ?

Note :
All procedures here are simplified for
overview only. Reader should refer to above
reference for detail procedures.

Create PDP Context


accepted

Create PDP
Context
Request
1
0
Create PDP context
accepted, send this
info to MS

Gi

Internet
DNS

A Simplified 2G/3G PS Call Flow


Referenc
(3/3)
e:
HL
R

MS

TS
23.060
TS
24.008
TS
29.060

Gn
DNS

BTS /
Nodeb
Abis Iub
1
1
PDP context activation
accepted, now browse to
www.google.com.au

BSC
RNC

1
2

Gb
-IuPS

Packet Data Network


e..g Internet

SGSN

Gn

GGSN

Gi
1
3

Internet
DNS

Note :
All procedures here are simplified for
overview only. Reader should refer to above
reference for detail procedures.

Handover

The purpose of handover control


is to manage the mobility aspect
of the Subscriber. This
means keeping track of mobile
stations (MS) as they move
around in the network, and
ensuring that their connections
are uninterrupted and meet the
negotiated Quality of
Service requirements.

Action of switching a
call in progress
from one radio
channel to another to
secure the continuity
of an established call.

Move to 4G..???
Waitfirst, let see the widely
involvement of IP protocol.
Protocol used in the control
plane messaging has evolved.
Changes in Transport Layer
protocol while keeping all the
Application Layer remain
unchanged.
Completely changed at
Transport and Application Layer.

Transport Layer has changed


dramatically from legacy
protocol toward IP.

General LTE Architecture


Pre
R8
2G/3
G

R8
2G

BTS/NodeB BSC/RNC
Gb
Iu

BTS

BSC

SGSN
PCRF

Gn
R7 DT
2G SGSN
Gb

Gx
SGi
Internet

S12 DT

R8
3G

Gn

NodeB

RNC

S4

Operator services

SGi
Iu
S11

SGSN

LTE

SGi

S5
PGW
SGW

eNodeB

S1-U

S3

HSS
S6a

S1-MME
SGs

MSC

MME
S10
Control plane
User plane

Basic EPS architecture defined in 3GPP TS


23.401

Acronym used in 4G
E-NodeB

Air interface toward MS in 4G

MME

Mobility Management Entity

Mobility Management for 4G,


Control Plane only

S-GW

Serving Gateway

Mobility Management for 4G for


User Plane, Handover
anchoring .

P-GW

Packet Data Network Gateway

Routing to Packet Data


Network, Session Management,
IP address Allocation. Function
of P-GW is similar to GGSN in
the 2G/3G network

HSS

Home Subscriber Server

Manage Permanent 4G
subscriber data. Evolution of
HLR.

Internet has driven operation


model(1/3)
Operator Network

TDM

SGSN

IP / MPLS

HL
R

GGSN
Internet

ATM

RNC

Multiple network type exist on Mobile Operator


Network

Internet has driven operation


model(2/3)
Operator Network

TDM

SGSN

IP / MPLS

HL
R

GGSN
Internet

ATM

RNC

Driven by internet grows, Telco vendor is developing their


product using IP as the transport media.

Internet has driven operation


model(3/3)
Operator Network

HL
R

SGSN

IP / MPLS

GGSN
Internet

RNC

Driven by internet grows, Telco vendor is developing their


product using IP as the transport media.
Mobile Operator needs to simplify the O&M for many
network
type. and opportunities are on-board for IP (IT) and Telco
New
challenges
engineer.

Protocol has been changed.. (1/2)


INAP/CAP

MAP

BSSAP

ISUP

TUP

TCAP
SCCP

M3UA

MTP Layer 3
MTP Layer 2
MTP Layer 1
Legacy Gr Interface
Between SGSN HLR
Using MAP
Application
SS7 protocol

SCTP
IP
Data Link Layer
Physical Layer

Gr Interface
Between SGSN HLR
Using MAP
Application
SS7 protocol
transported over IP

Protocol has been changed (2/2)


Diameter Application
M3UA
SCTP

SCTP

IP

IP

Data Link Layer

Data Link Layer

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Gr Interface
Between SGSN HLR
Using MAP
Application
SS7 protocol
transported over IP

S6a Interface
Between MME HSS
Using Diameter
Application
RFC 3588
TS 29.272

IP is here
User Plane

UE

eNB

PDCP

PDCP

S-GW
GTP-U

GTP-U

GTP-U/GRE

GTP-U/GRE

UDP

UDP

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

IP

IP

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

L2

L2

L2

L2

PHY

PHY

L1

L1

L1

L1

Uu

S1-U

UE

Control Plane

P-GW

eNB

S5/S8

MME

NAS

NAS

S-GW

P-GW

GTP-Cv2

GTP-Cv2
PMIP

GTP-Cv2
PMIP

RRC

RRC

S1AP

S1AP

PDCP

PDCP

SCTP

SCTP

UDP

UDP

UDP

RLC

RLC

IP

IP

IP

IP

IP

MAC

MAC

L2

L2

L2

L2

L2

PHY

PHY

L1

L1

L1

L1

L1

Uu

S1MME

S11

S5/S8

SGSN /
MME

MME

GTP-Cv2

GTP-Cv2

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1

Control Plane

S3/S4/S10/S
16

SGSN

S-GW

GTP-U

GTP-U

UDP

UDP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1
S4/S12

MME

HSS/EIR

Diamete
r

Diamete
r

SCTP/TCP

SCTP/TCP

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1
S6a/S6d/S
13

User Plane

Control Plane

and here

Referenc
e:
TS
29.281
TS
23.401

and everywhere
Example : VRF Concept
VRF
VRF
VRF
VRF

PGW

A
B
C
D

P
E

IP addressing scheme ?
Private/public ?
Running OSPF between Node
and PE
Area 0 or non-backbone ?
Stub or totally stub ? NSSA ?
or should BGP being used ??
VRF
VRF
S5
VRF
S1u OAM
VRF
SGi
A wake up call for Telco Engineer !!!

Multiple OSPF process

Multihoming Concept
ISP A

Customer Provider
Costumer
C

ISP B
While in telecommunication has another view about
multihoming.. Client Role
Server Role

192.168.1.1/24

Primary Path

192.168.3.1/24

192.168.2.1/24

Secondary Path

192.168.4.1/24

Based on IETF - RFC 4960


Application always use 2 IPs from different subnet for each node.
Whenever there is a failure in primary path, the client and server
automatically switch the traffic into secondary path.
Applied for most signaling traffic, such diameter, Sigtran.
Telco engineer to make sure that Client Server communicate correctly.
IP engineer to make sure that there is a path diversity within IP network
and there is NO unseen single point of failure may happen.

A Simplified PS Call Flow with 4G


(1/2)
Attach
request..

MS

Herewith the
info

eNode
B

Get info for this


subscriber
2

Create Session Request


response (Accept)

DN
S
What is the S-GW IP Address ?
What is the P-GW IP Address ?

MME
S1u

HS
S

S1
I am attached to
the network and
want to browse to
www.google.com.au
1
1

Herewith the IP
Addresses

Create Session Request with


IP Address of S-GW and PGW
6

S1
1
1
0

Referenc
e:
TS
29.281
TS
23.401
TS
29.274
Packet Data Network
e..g Internet

S-GW

P-GW

SG
i

S5/S8
8
Create Session Request with
IP Address of P-GW
7

Create Session Request


response (Accept)

Create Session Request


response (Accept)

Note :
All procedures here are simplified for
overview only. Reader should refer to above
reference for detail procedures.

A Simplified PS Call Flow with 4G


(2/2)
HS
S

MS

Referenc
e:
TS
29.281
TS
23.401
TS
29.274
Packet Data Network

DN
S

eNode
B
S1

I am attached to
the network and
want to browse to
www.google.com.au

MME
S1u
1
1

S1
1

e..g Internet

S-GW

P-GW
S5/S8

1
2

SG
i
1
3

Internet
DNS

Note :
All procedures here are simplified for
overview only. Reader should refer to above
reference for detail procedures.

LTE QoS Concept Overview

Admission Control
Prioritize bearers based on QoS parameter
Protect network element in case of congestion or overload.

Traffic Control
Traffic classification (queuing, scheduling)
Traffic policing and shaping

EPC Project Delivery


Client : one of live mobile operator
Duration : Jan 2012- November 2012
Involving 3 areas of expertise :
PS Core
CS Core
IP

Prepare
Optimizati
on

Plan

Operate

Design
Implemen
t

Network Assessment : Current 2G/3G Mobile Packet Core


Project Delivery: EPC Node Commissioning and Integration
Network Target : LTE & 2G/3G interworking
BTS/NodeB BSC/RNC
Gb
Iu

Pre
R8
2G/3
G

SGSN

Gn

R7 DT

GGSN

Gr
HLR/HSS

S6a

Internet
PGW

SGW
S5

LTE

eNodeB

Gi

Gn

SGi

S11
S1-U
S1-MME
SGs
MME
S10
Control plane
User plane

Operator services

MSC

Lessons learned and Challenges...

It is a new technology..
New network elements, protocols and
procedures.
Everyone involve may have their own
interpretation during planning,
commissioning and integration.
Limited reference from available
production network.
Always refer to International Standard.
3GPP, RFC and GSMA.

It is all IP..
A complexity of client MPLS
network.
Design and Planning is taking an
important step.
Requires an intensive collaboration
work with IP team.
Things worth to note
L1 implementation. Wrong cable positioning
VLAN and IP addressing, public/private ??
Pay attention into any node limitation : port
type, MTU, active/standby behavior, Load
Balance concept, Client-Server role

Diameter Routing Planning..


Without DRA
DRA=Diameter Routing Agent With DRA
HSS

EIR

HSS

HSS

HSS

HSS

DR
DR
AA

MME

MME

MME

EIR

Roaming
Partner
/GRX

MME

Some screenshots from 4G


handset
Some speed test in
various location.

Upcoming technical challenges


with LTE

More Information
Technical Specification and Standard. Readable and
downloadable for public
www.3gpp.org/specification-numbering
www.ietf.org
http://www.gsma.com/newsroom/technical-documents
EPC Product Knowledge. Also readable and downloadable
for public
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps11072/products_i
nstallation_and_configuration_guides_list.html
Further discussion

Parakontel
Indocisco

ready to take-off now ?

then please fasten your seatbelt

Thank You.

Images Credits
http://wallpoper.com/wallpaper/board-circuit-253188
http://forzamotorsport.net/en-US/fm4/tracks.aspx?t=Circuit_de_Catalunya
http://www.certshelp.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ip-address.jpg
http://coachgiorgio.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/teamwork4.jpg

Further discussion.